New book, to appear with The University of Chicago Press
- Anastasia Giannakidou and Alda Mari Veridicality in Grammar and Thought: Mood, Modality, and Propositional Attitudes . In press, scheduled for Spring 2021.
This book addresses the central question of how truth and veridicality are conceptualized in the grammar of human language. We establish a number of phenomena that are particularly revealing for such an exploration: modality, propositional attitudes, temporal dependencies and mood selection, and we study them in Greek, Italian, English, and French.
One important thing that we found was that knowledge is the only realm of truth, which we identify with objective veridicality. Knowledge verbs are the only verbs that engage with the world directly, and whose complement sentences can refer to actual facts. In any other embedding, the world and reality are accessed only privately and indirectly, via subjective representations that individuals construct--- which we called `models', `information states', and `modal bases'--- based on their beliefs, memories, imagination, desires, expectation, and of course also knowledge. When a choice is made to use of modal expression or a propositional attitude verb, the speaker (as is the case with modals) or the propositional attitude bearer (as is the case with attitude verbs) are expressing stances towards truth by admitting essentially that they lack knowledge. Attitude embedding, thus, creates an inescapable subjectivity in language.
Propositional attitude and modal meanings, in our theory, emerge as stances towards propositions that can be veridical or nonveridical. Our approach to modals and attitudes has been that, contrary to what previous literature believed, they are in fact quite similar. The logic of, and constraints in, reasoning are essentially the same with attitudes and modals, as we showed. The veridical stance relies on a homogenous epistemic or doxastic state, and creates factual or solipsistic commitments of the individual anchors.
The nonveridical stance, on the other hand, is reasoning with uncertainty. In the nonveridical stance, the mental state allows both p and its negation as open possiblities, and this was shown to weaken the meaning. This weakening typically takes the form of a presupposition. Hence, in the subjective realm, while the veridical stance typically dominates the assertion, the nonveridical stance manifests itself as a presupposition. In the objective realm, that is with knowledge, veridicality characterizes both assertion and presupposition.
Recent work on questions and modality
Modalization and bias in questions With Alda Mari, 2021
Recently presented at a workshop on bias in questions, Leibniz Zentrum Berlin. We propose an analysis of the question operator as an epistemic possibility modal akin to MIGHT. Evidence for our analysis is provided by a number of empirical similarities between epistemic modal expressions of possibility and questions, including the use of of possibility, but not necessity, modals in questions, and the robust use of possibility particles in questions (Greek, Italian, Korean). The result of modalization is a weakening of the question, which we explain by using the theory of modal spread. Our analysis allows us to unify the two hitherto unconnected phenomena of bias and weakening in questions. Regarding bias, we explore the purely semantic properties of epistemic modals and negation to derive it, thus rendering appeal to a speech act operator for questions unnecessary. The broader implications of our analysis supports the view that, if we take into consideration nonveridicality, the difference between questions and assertions is not categorical.
Recent papers on polarity
A critical assessment of exhaustivity for NPIs: the view from Greek, Korean, Mandarin, and English 2018. Acta Linguistic Academica 65: 503-545.
The semantic roots of positive polarity with epistemic modal adverbs and verbs: evidence from Greek and Italian with Alda Mari. Linguistics and Philosophy. March 2018.
Assessing the role of experimental evidence for interface judgment: Licensing of negative polarity it With Urtzi Etxeberria. Frontiers in Psychology, 2018.
The landscape of negative dependencies: negative concord and n-words. 2017. Syntax Companion, Blackwell, 2nd edition. (with Hedde Zeijlstra).
Oxford Encyclopedia entry: Polarity in the semantics of natural language
This is an overview article prepared for the Oxford Encyclopedia of Linguistics.
Semantic and pragmatic processes in the comprehension of negation: An event related potential study of negative polarity sensitivity. (with Ming Xiang, Julian Grove). Journal of Neurolinguistics. 2016 38: 71-88.
Scalar marking without scalar meaning: non-scalar, non-exhaustive EVEN-marked NPIs in Greek and Korean. (with Suwon Yoon). 2016. Language. pp. 522-556.
Assertoric inertia, veridicality conflict, and perspective in NPI licensing This paper was presented at the Hornucopia Workshop in honor of Larry Horn, which was held at Yale in Nov. 2015.I discuss emotive verbs and "almost".
Recent papers on veridicality, modality, and mood
A unified analysis of the future as epistemic modality: the view from Greek and Italian (with Alda Mari). Natural Language and Linguistics Theory. 2018. DOI 10.1007/s11049-017-9366-z
Epistemic future and epistemic MUST: nonveridicality, evidence, and partial knowledge. (with Alda Mari), Mood, Aspect and Modality: What is a linguistic Category?, ed. by Blaszack, J. A. Giannakidou, D. Klimek-Jankowska, K. Mygdalski. University of Chicago Press. 2016.
The subjunctive as evaluation and nonveridicality Anastasia Giannakidou. For: Mood, Aspect and Modality: What is a linguistic Category?, ed. by Blaszack, J. A. Giannakidou, D. Klimek-Jankowska, K. Mygdalski.
Emotive predicates and the subjunctive: a flexible mood OT account based on (non)veridicality. with Alda Mari. Sinn und Bedeutung 19. 2016.
Mixed veridicality and mood choice with emotive verbs. (with Alda Mari). This is a paper presented at CLS 51, April 2015.
Inquisitive assertions and nonveridicality. In "The dynamic, inquisitive, and visionary life of phi, ?phi, and possibly phi-- A festschrift for Jeroen Groenendijk, Martin Stokhof and Frank Veltman, Maria Aloni, Michael Franke, and Floris Roelofsen (eds). 115-126, 2013.
The prospective as nonveridical: polarity items, speaker commitment and projected truth. In "The Black Book", Feestschrift for Frans Zwarts. ed. by J. Hoeksema and D. Gilberts. 2014.
Recent papers on NP semantics and definiteness
Definiteness, partitivity, and domain restriction: a fresh look at definite reduplication (with Urtzi Etxeberria). In A. Aguilar, J. Pozas & Violeta Vazquez-Rojas (eds.), Definiteness across languages. LangSci series: Studies in Diversity Linguistics
A unified analysis of Spanish algu?n/algunos: anti-specificity, plurality, and NP-anaphora (with Urtzi Etxeberria). January 2017. The paper argues for a unified analysis of plural and singular algun, and proposes that we are dealing with a referentially vague indefinite in both cases. The apparent differences follow from NP-ellipsis, and the way referential vagueness interacts with plurality.
- Blaszack, J., A. Giannakidou, D. Klimek-Jankowska, K. Mygdalski (eds). Mood, Aspect and Modality. What is a Linguistic Category?. University of Chicago Press. 2016.
- Lilia Schurcks, Anastasia Giannakidou, Urtzi Etxeberria (eds). 2014. Nominal structure in Slavic and beyond. Series: Studies in Generative Grammar, Mouton de Gruyter.
- Giannakidou Anastasia and Monika Rathert, 2009. (eds), Quantification, Definiteness, and Nominalization. Oxford University Press, Series Oxford Studies in Theoretical Linguistics
- Giannakidou, Anastasia. 1998. Polarity Sensitivity as (Non)veridical Dependency. John Benjamins, Amsterdam-Philadelphia. 281 pp.
Work prior to 2016
Giannakidou, A. 2014. The modality of the present and the future: Greek, Dutch, and beyond. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory. Springer online. (DOI) 10.1007/s11049-014-9234-z.
Definiteness and domain restriction: from Greek and Basque to Salish. (with Urtzi Etxeberria). 2014. In: Schurcks, Etxeberria, and Giannakidou (eds.), The Nominal Structure in Slavic and beyond. Series: Studies in Generative Grammar, Mouton de Gruyter.
A two dimensional analysis of the future: modal adverbs and speaker bias (with Alda Mari). In the Proceedings of the 19th Amsterdam Colloquium 2013.
Giannakidou, A. 2013. (Non)veridicality, evaluation, and event actualization:
evidence from the subjunctive in relative clauses In Nonveridicality, Perspective, and Discourse Coherence, ed. by Taboada and Tvranc, Brill, Studies in Pragmatics Series.
Giannakidou, A. and J. Quer. 2013. Exhaustive and non-exhaustive variation with anti-specific indefinites: free choice and referential vagueness in Greek, Catalan, and Spanish. (2013), Lingua 26:120-149.
Giannakidou, A., and E. Staraki, 2013. Rethinking ability: ability as modality and ability as action. Rethinking ability: ability as modality and ability as action. In Genericity, ed. Alda Mari et al., Oxford University Press. 250-275.
- Cheng, Lisa L.S, and Anastasia Giannakidou. 2013
The Non-Uniformity of wh-indeterminates with free choice and polarity in Chinese. In The Nature of Quantification and Crosslinguistic variation, ed. by G. Tsoulas and K.-H. Gil. Oxford University Press, 123-154
Dependency-dependent interference: NPI interference, agreement, and global pragmatic inferences. Xiang, Ming, Julian Grove, and Anastasia Giannakidou. 2013. Frontiers in Psychology.
Giannakidou, A. 2012. The landscape of Greek Quantifiers. In the Handbook of Quantifiers in Natural Language, edited by E. L. Keenan and D. Paperno, Series: Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy.
- Giannakidou, Anastasia 2011. Nonveridicality and mood choice: subjunctive, polarity, and time.For the volume Tense across Languages, ed. by Renate Musan and Monika Rathert. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
- Giannakidou, Anastasia. 2011. Positive polarity items and negative polarity items: variation, licensing, and compositionality. In Semantics: An International Handbook of Natural Language Meaning (Second edition; ed. by C. Maienborn, K. von Heusinger, and P. Portner). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 1660-1712.
Giannakidou, Anastasia and Suwon Yoon. 2011. The subjective mode of comparison: metalingusitic comparatives in Greek and Korean. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 29:621-655.
Franklin, Amy, Anastasia Giannakidou, and Susan Goldin-Meadow. 2011. Negation, questions, and structure building in a home sign system. Cognition, Volume 118, Issue 3: 398-416
Giannakidou, Anastasia. 2011. Bibliography on "Polarity". Oxford Bibliographies Online (OBO), Entry: Polarity. On line open access bibliography. Editor-in-Chief Prof. Mark Aronoff (Yale University).
- Etxeberria, Urtzi, and Anastasia Giannakidou, 2010.
Contextual domain restriction and the definite determiner. In Context-Dependence, Perspective and Relativity, ed. by F. Recanati, I. Stojanovic, and N. Villanueva, Mouton de Gruyter, Mouton Series in Pragmatics 6.
Giannakidou, Anastasia. 2010.
The dynamics of change in Dutch enig: from nonveridicality to strict negative polarity.Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 28: 861-875.
- Giannakidou, Anastasia and Melita Stavrou. 2009. On metalinguistic comparatives and negation in Greek. Proceedings of the 2007 Workshop on Greek Syntax and Semantics, ed. by Claire Halpert, Jeremy Hartman, and David Hill, MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 57. 57-74.
Giannakidou, Anastasia. 2009. The dependency of the subjunctive revisited: temporal semantics and polarity. Lingua 120: 1883-1908.
Giannakidou, Anastasia. 2007. The landscape of EVEN. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 25: 39-81.
- Giannakidou, Anastasia 2006. Polarity, questions, and the scalar properties of even. In Drawing the Boundaries of Meaning: Neo-Gricean studies in pragmatics and semantics in honor of Laurence R. Horn, ed. by Gregory Ward and Maria Birner. John Benjamins. 95-116.
- Giannakidou, Anastasia, 2006. N-words and negative concord. In the Blackwell Companion to Syntax, edited by Martin Everaert et al. Volume III: chapter 45: 327-391.
Giannakidou, Anastasia. 2006. Only, emotive factives, and the dual nature of polarity dependency. Language, 82: 575-603.
Giannakidou, Anastasia. and Lisa. L.-S. Cheng, 2006. (In)Definiteness, polarity, and the role of wh-morphology in free choice. Journal of Semantics 23: 135-183.
- Giannakidou, A. 2003. A puzzle about until and the Present Perfect. In A. Alexiadou, M. Rathert, and A. von Stechow (eds.) Perfect Explorations pp. 101-133. Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin.
Den Dikken, Marcel, and Anastasia Giannakidou, 2002. From Hell to Polarity: 'Aggressively non-D-linked' wh-phrases as polarity items. Linguistic Inquiry 33: 31-61.
Giannakidou, Anastasia. 2001. The meaning of free choice. Linguistics and Philosophy 24: 659-735.
- Giannakidou, A. 2001. Varieties of polarity items and the (Non)veridicality Hypothesis. In Jack Hoeksema, Hotze Rullmann, Victor Sanchez-Valencia, and Ton van der Wouden (eds), Perspectives on Negation and Polarity, John Benjamins, Amsterdam-Philadelphia. 99-129.
Giannakidou, Anastasia. 2000. Crosslinguistic semantics and the study of Greek. [Invited contribution]. The Journal of Greek Linguistics 1: 223-262.
Giannakidou, Anastasia. 2000. Negative ... concord? Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 18: 457-523.
Giannakidou, Anastasia . 2000. Negative concord and the scope of universals. Transactions of the Philological Society 98.1: 87-120. [Special issue on negation and polarity, edited by Paul Rowlett.]
Giannakidou, Anastasia. 1999. Affective dependencies. Linguistics and Philosophy 22: 367-421.
- Giannakidou, A. 1999. Weak and strong licensing: evidence from Greek. Studies in Greek Syntax, ed. by Artemis Alexiadou, Geoffrey Horrocks and Melita Stavrou. Kluwer, Dordrecht. 113-133.
Giannakidou, Anastasia., and Melita Stavrou. 1999. Nominalization and ellipsis in the Greek DP. The Linguistic Review 16: 295-332.
Giannakidou, A., 1999. Polariteitsverschijnselen en (non)veridicaliteit. [Polarity phenomena and (non) veridicality] Nederlandse Taalkunde, 2: 93-110.
Giannakidou, A. and J. Merchant, 1998. Reverse sluicing in English and Greek. The Linguistic Review 15: 233-256.
- Giannakidou, A. and J. Quer. 1997. Long distance licensing of negative indefinites. Negation and Polarity: syntax and semantics ed. by Daniel Forget, Paul Hirschbuehler, France Martineau, and Maria Luisa Rivero. John Benjamins, Amsterdam-Philadelphia. 95-113.
Giannakidou, A., 1995. Negative polariteit en kale NPs. [Negative polarity and bare NPs] Bulletin voor Taalwetenschap (TABU) 25.1: 133-137.
- Giannakidou, A. 1994. The Semantic licensing of NPIs and the Modern Greek subjunctive. In Ale de Boer, Helen de Hoop, Henriette de Swart (eds), Language and Cognition 4, Yearbook of the Research Group for Theoretical and Experimental Linguistics, University of Groningen: 55-68.
- Giannakidou, A. 1993. KANENAS and TIPOTA, talking about nothing or anything in Modern Greek. In Ale de Boer, J. de Jong, and Rita Landeweerd (eds), Language and Cognition 3, Yearbook of the Research Group for Theoretical and Experimental Linguistics, University of Groningen. 49-58.
Some conference proceedings
Giannakidou, A. and A. Mari. The future without metaphysical alternatives. To appear in the Proceedings of Sinn und Bedeutung 17.
Giannakidou, A. and Alda Mari. The future of Greek and Italian: an evidential analysis. Chicago Linguistic Society (CLS) 48.
Chatzikonstantinou. A. Giannakidou A, and D. Papadopoulou, Scope and emphasis in Greek NPIs and universal quantifiers: a pilot study. To appear in the Proceedings of International Conference on Greek Linguistics (ICGL) 10, University of Thrace.
- Chatzikonstantinou. A. Giannakidou A, and D. Papadopoulou: The processing of Greek emphatic NPIs and scope: evidence for 6 year olds. To appear in Studies in Greek Linguistics 39. University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
- Chatzopoulou, Katerina, and Giannakidou, Anastasia. 2011. Negation selection in Attic Greek is a polarity phenomenon. Presented at Diachronic Approaches in Generative Syntax (DiGS) 13.
- Giannakidou, Anastasia and Suwon Yoon, 2011. Non-exhaustive variation, EVEN-weakening, and negative polarity: evidence from Greek and Korean. To appear in Chicago Linguistic Society (CLS) 2011.
- Giannakidou, Anastasia, Despoina Papadopoulou, and Melita Stavrou. 2011. Epistemic judgement, anti-specificity marking, and scope differentiation: experimental evidence from two Greek indefinites. To appear in the Proceedings of CLS 2011.
- Giannakidou, Anastasia and Suwon Yoon. 2010. No NPI-licensing in comparatives. To appear in the Proceedings of CLS 2010.
- Giannakidou, A. 2008. A temporal semantics for the Greek subjunctive. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Greek Linguistics.
- Giannakidou, A. and S. Yoon, 2008. Metalinguistic comparatives and the expressive dimension: evidence from Greek and Korean. Proceedings of Sinn und Bedeutung 13, ed. by Arndt Riester and Torgrim Solstad. University of Stuttgart, Germany.
- Giannakidou, A. and S. Yoon. 2008. Metalinguistic and negation containing comparatives in Greek and Korean. In the Proceedings of 10th Seoul International Conference on Generative Grammar (SICOGG 10). Seoul, Korea.
- Giannakidou, A. and S. Yoon. 2008. Two types of metalinguistic comparatives in Greek and Korean. In the Proceedings of 6th International Conference of Cognitive Science (ICCS 6). Seoul, Korea.
- Giannakidou, A. 2004. Domain restriction and the arguments of quantificational determiners. In Semantics and Linguistic Theory 14. Cornell Linguistics Club: Ithaca, NY. [Available at the Semantics Archive: semanticsarchive.net]
- Giannakidou, A. 2004. The three faces of even. In Maria Matheoudhaki and Ageliki Psaltou-Joycey (eds), Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on Theoretical and Applied Linguistics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. 15 pp.
- Giannakidou, A. 2004. Negation, affirmation, and the presuppositions of even. In Maria Karali and Agathoklis Charalambopoulos (eds) Studies in Greek Linguistics 24. 76-88.
- Giannakidou, A. 2003. EVEN in questions revisited. In the Proceedings of the 14th Amsterdam Colloquium, ed. by Paul Dekker and Martin Stokhof. Institute for Logic, Language, and Computation, University of Amsterdam. 56-62.
- Giannakidou, A. 2002. Until crosslinguistically, aspect and negation: a novel argument for two untils. In Brendan Jackson (ed.), Semantics and Linguistic Theory (SALT) 12, CLC Publications, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. 84-103.
- Giannakidou, A. 2002. Licensing and sensitivity in polarity items: from downward entailment to nonveridicality. In Maria Andronis, Anne Pycha and Keiko Yoshimura (eds), CLS 38: Papers from the 38th Annual Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, Parasession on Polarity and Negation. 21 pp.
- Giannakidou, A. 2001. Free choice is not universal quantification. In Yoryia Agouraki, Amalia Arvaniti, Dionysis Goutsos, Jim Davey, Marilena Karyolemou, Anna Panayiotou-Triandafillidou, Andreas Papapavlou, Pavlos Pavlou, and Anna Roussou (eds) Proceedings of the 4th International Conference of Greek Linguistics, University Studio Press, Thessaloniki, Greece. 251-258.
- Giannakidou, A. 2001. What the hell?. with Marcel den Dikken. In Minjoo Kim and Uri Strauss (eds), Proceedings of the Northeastern Linguistics Society (NELS 31), GLSA, University of Massachusetts, Amherst. 163-182.
- Alexiadou, A. and A. Giannakidou, A. 1999. Specificational pseudoclefts as lists. In Kimary Shahin, Susan Blake, and Eun-Sook Kim (eds), Proceedings of the Seventeenth West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics (WCCFL 17), CSLI, Stanford Publications. 1-16.
- Giannakidou, A., and J. Merchant. 1999. Why Giannis can't scrub his plate clean: On the absence of resultative secondary predication in Greek. In A. Mozer (ed.), Greek Linguistics '97: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Greek Linguistics. Ellinika Grammata, Athens. 93-103.
- Giannakidou, A. and F. Zwarts. 1999. Aspectual properties of temporal connectives. In A. Mozer (ed), Greek Linguistics '97: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Greek Linguistics. Ellinika Grammata, Athens. 104-113.
- Giannakidou, A. and J. Merchant. 1998. An asymmetry in asymmetric donkey anaphora. In Savvas Tsochatzidis, Agathoklis Charalambopoulos, and Maria Karali (eds), Studies in Greek Linguistics 18. Proceedings of the 18th annual Meeting of the Department of Linguistics. University of Thessaloniki. Pp. 141-155.
- Giannakidou, A. 1997. Linking sensitivity to limited distribution: the case of free choice. In Paul Dekker, Martin Stokhof, and Yde Venema (eds), Proceedings of the 11th Amsterdam Colloquium. University of Amsterdam. 139-145.
- Giannakidou, A. and J. Merchant, 1997. On the interpretation of null indefinite objects in Greek. With Jason Merchant. In Jannis Veloudis and Maria Karali (eds), Studies in Greek Linguistics 17: Proceedings of the 17th Annual Meeting of the Department of Linguistics, University of Thessaloniki. 290-303.
- Giannakidou, A. and J. Quer, 1997. Disentangling nonlocal licensing of negative indefinites. In Gaberell Drachman, Kiki Malikouti-Drachman, Janis Fykias, and Sila Klidi (eds), Greek linguistics (Proceedings of the 2nd International conference on Greek linguistics), Neugebauer Verlag, Graz. 449-558.
- Giannakidou, A. 1996. Habituality and negative polarity. In Jannis Veloudis and Xristos Tzitzilis (eds), Studies in Greek Linguistics 16: Proceedings of the 16th Annual Meeting of the Department of Linguistics, University of Thessaloniki. 333-345.
- Farkas, D. F. and A. Giannakidou, 1996. How clause-bounded is the scope of universals? With Donka Farkas. In Gallway, T. (ed.) Proceedings of Semantics and Linguistic Theory (SALT 6), CLC Publications, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. 35-52. [Also appeared as LRC-Report 96-113, Linguistics Research Center, UCSC].
- Anagnostopoulou, E. and A. Giannakidou, 1995.Clitics and prominence, or Why specificity is not enough. With Elena Anagnostopoulou. In Audra Dainora, Rachel Hemphill, Barabara Luka, Barabara Need, and Sheri Pragman (eds), CLS 31: Papers from the 31st Annual Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, Volume 2: Parasession on Clitics. University of Chicago. 1-15.
- Giannakidou, A., 1995. Linking mood to polarity sensitivity: the case of the Modern Greek subjunctive. In Antonietta Bisetti, Joao Costa, Rob Goedemans, Nicola Munaro, and Ruben van de Vijver (eds), Proceedings of CONSOLE 3, University of Venice. 71-83.
- Giannakidou, A., 1995. On the semantic licensing of polarity items. In Anastasios-Phoevos Christidis, Maria Margariti-Roga, and Argyris Arhakis (eds), Studies in Greek Linguistics 15: Proceedings of the 15th Annual Meeting of the Department of Linguistics, University of Thessaloniki. 406-418.
- Giannakidou, A., 1995. Subjunctive, habituality and negative polarity. In Mandy Simons, and Teresa Galloway (eds). Semantics and Linguistic Theory (SALT) V, CLC Publications, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. 94-112.
- Giannakidou, A. and J. Quer, 1995. Two mechanisms for the licensing of negative indefinites. In Leslie Gabriele, Debra Hardison, and Robert Westmoreland (eds), FLSM VI: Proceedings of the 6th Annual Meeting of the Formal Linguistics Society of Mid-America: Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana. Volume II: 103-105.
- Giannakidou, A. 1993. KANIS/ kanis: A case of polarity sensitivity in Modern Greek. In Anna Anastasiadi-Simeonidi, Mirto Koutitia-Kaimaki, and Melita Stavrou-Sifaki (eds), Studies in Greek Linguistics 14: Proceedings of the 14th annual Meeting of the Department of Linguistics, University of Thessaloniki. 130-144.