Course Offerings and Syllabi

    There are three ongoing courses which will be periodically offered whose syllabi may be consulted here: The first syllabus, "I", is the2005 version of the course to be taught again in the Spring of 2006: Explorations in Oral Narrative  It will give a general idea of the organization of that course. The first half of the course has been changed only very slowly over the years. The second half of course changes much more. The revised overall syllabus for that course will be posted in January 2006. the revised second half of course end April 2006. Two other syllabi may be consulted here: II. Trope Theory in Anthropology offered  Spring of 2001 and 2003. and probably in the Spring 0f 2007, III. Ethnographic Narrative, last offered Spring 2000. Select by clicking below.  If you are a  student who wishes to view information about current courses listed on Chalk please click here.

Explorations | Trope Theory | Ethnographic Narrative


Explorations in Oral Narrative

Storytelling and the Folktale.



Department of Anthropology



Explorations in Oral Narrative and J. W. Fernandez


Human Nature and Storytelling--The Folktale.

Anthro 213/453

Spring 2006

Catalogue Statement: Part I. April 1 to May 1.


Explorations in Oral Narrative--The Folktale: A study of "storytelling" in culture and as a genre of folklore; the variety of tales in the Indo-European tradition in comparison with other traditions, primarily the Mediterranean and Afro-American; the functions of "storytelling" in culture; the role of narrative art in intellectual productions; the way that stories are formulated and reiterated; the role of motifs and schema in narration and in gaining audience "appreciation"; the contemporary "storytelling" movement in America. Course work includes "storytelling opportunities." This term our course will consist of 18 lecture-discussions -- several sessions will be devoted in part or in whole to Video Presentations. Our final session will be on June 3rd. There will be a mid-term exercise, an short answer exam and a final paper (not more than 10 pages!). Graduate students attending will have a rather different set of responsibilities.


This syllabus is presented in two parts. Part I presents some basic issues and develops some foundational perspectives that have become canonical in treating and understanding oral narrative and the lore of the folk. Part II focuses on some contemporary issues and problems that characterize this body of study. Because it seeks to consider contemporary materials in the study of oral narrative the readings for Part II will not be handed out until the last week in April.wek before




Something that humans do on an everyday basis, though often in a not-obvious way, is tell each other stories about the state of the world and about themselves and, most particularly, others. They also tell about their projects in the world, past, present and future. Our life in culture depends upon that telling just as it is misled and made problematic by it. The purpose of this course is to explore the nature of storytelling from the anthropological point of view. We will focus upon that genre of folklore known as the folktale -- because here folklorists offer us a vast repository of materials -- to try and understand the nature and dynamic of storytelling as well as its diversity across cultures. But we have other related objectives. What is the difference between living in a world of oral narrative and a literate world? How easy is it to recapture that "lost world"? Can we understand the role of narration in giving meaning to human life in culture and come to detect the storytelling that is present in everyday life and even in the professional life?


The following list contains the assigned readings as well as important collateral materials. All readings are on reserve and, as much as possible on electronic reserve. Collateral readings listed are background to lecture and discussion.



Albert Lord and Milman Perry, THE SINGER OF TALES. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press 1966.



-Ruth Bottigheimer, FAIRY TALES AND SOCIETY,Philadelphia,

Univ. of Penn Press. 1987

-Edward Bruner, ed., TEXT, PLAY, AND STORY. Washington:American Ethnological Society 1984.

-Edward Bruner and Victor Turner, eds., THE ANTHROPOLOGY Of EXPERIENCE. Urbana; University of Illinois Press 1986.

-Bruce Grindal, Frank a Salomone, BRIDGES TO HUMANITY, NARRATIVES ON ANTHROPOLOGY AND FRIENDSHIP, Prospect Heights: Waveland Press. 1995

-S, Lavie, K. Narayan, R. Rosaldo, Creativity/Anthropology, Cornell 1993

Most other readings are in xerox.

The following resources are of value in addition to Stith Thompson's MOTIF INDEX OF FOLK LITERATURE (six vols):Indiana Press

Richard Dorson, ed. HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN FOLKLORE. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press.1983.


Newbell Niles Puckett et. al. POPULAR BELIEFS AND SUPERSTITIONS: A COMPENDIUM OF AMERICAN FOLKLORE Wayland D. Hand ed. 3 vols. Boston: G.K. Hall. 1981.


I. The Story of This Course and Some Stories Learned at Our Grandmother's Knee: The Family Saga and the Life History.


*Walter Benjamin, "The Storyteller" in ILLUMINATIONS. New York 1968.

-Robert Roy Reed, ARemembering Cinita,@in BRIDGES TO HUMANITY, pgs 114-130.1995.

-Esther Schely-Newman, OUR LIVES ARE BUT STORIES; Narratives of Tunisian-Israeli Women. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. 2002. Introduction, Chapter 5. Conclusion.

Collateral: Michael Agar, "Stories, Background Knowledge and Themes: Problems in the Analysis of Life History Narrative," AMERICAN ETHNOLOGIST 7(2)(May 1980).

--Mody Boatright, "The Family Saga as a Form of Folklore" in THE FAMILY SAGA AND THE PHASES OF AMERICAN FOLKLORE, -M. C. Boatright, R. B. Downs and J. T. Flanagan, eds., pp. 1-19. Urbana: University of Illinois Press 1958.

-Kristin M. Langellier, "Personal Narratives: Perspectives on Theory and Research", Text and Performance Quarterly, Vol. IX.

(4), October 1989. pp. 243-276.

-James Peacock, "Religion and Life History: An Exploration in Cultural Psychology" in TEXT, PLAY, AND STORY, pp. 94-116.

-Sandra Stahl, "The Personal Narrative as Folklore," JOURNAL OF THE FOLKLORE INSTITUTE 14(1-2)(1977).

-M. Shostak, NISA: THE LIFE AND WORDS OF A 'KUNG WOMAN. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

-M. Vargas Llosa, THE STORYTELLER, NY: Farrar. 1989

-----------------------------------------------------------------A short Video will be shown: "The Farm Bell" Haskell 315.


II. Do We Need to Tell Stories?: The Argument of Images and the Power in Mimesis and Gesture.


-G. Hewes, "Primate Communication and the Gestural Origin of Language," CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY 14:(1)(1973):5-24.

*Walter J. Ong, "African Talking Drums and Oral Noetics," NEW LITERARY HISTORY 8(1977):411-429.

Collateral:-J. W. Fernandez, "The Argument of Images and the Experience of Returning to the Whole" in THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF EXPERIENCE, pp. 159-187.

-M. C. McGee, "Narrative Reason in Public Argument," JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION, Vol 35. 1985. pp. 139-155.


III. Telling Stories in Primary Oral Societies: Orality and Literacy.


*J. Goody and Ian Watt, "The Consequences of

Literacy", COMP. STUDIES IN SOC. AND HISTORY. Vol. 5.: 304-345.



CULTURE. Chap 1, (Transformations of the Word), Chap 11, (Voice and the Opening of Closed Systems). Ithaca: Cornell U. Press. 1977.

Collateral: Calerie Babb, Writing to Undo What Writing Has Done" Phylon, XLVII (2), 1987: pgs 107-116.


-Margaret Trawick, "Spirits and Voices in Tamil Songs" American Ethnologist, 15 (2), 1988. 193-215.


IV. Starting Something From Nothing: Origin Tales, Where They Come From and What They Tell Us.


*Anna Birgitta Rooth, "The Creation Myths of the North American Indians", ANTHROPOS, Vol 52, (1957), 497-508.

*K. Numazawa, "The Separation of Sky and Earth, SCIENTIA, Vol 1., (1953): 28-35.

Collateral:E. Neumann, THE ORIGINS AND HISTORY OF CONSCIOUSNESS, Princeton: Bollingen.

-Jaynes, Julian, The origin of consciousness in the breakdown of the bicameral mind, Boston: Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1977.

V, Story Telling and our Social Animality: The Social Animals as Storyteller: The Paradox of Story Telling; Information and Relationship in Story telling.


-G. Bateson, "Problems in Cetacean and Other Mammalian Communication" and "A Theory of Play and Fantasy" in STEPS TOWARD AN ECOLOGY OF MIND, pp. 364-378 and 177-194. New York: Ballantine 1972.

-M. E. Hamilton, "Revising Evolutionary Narratives: A Consideration of Alternative Assumptions About Sexual

Selection and Competition for Mates", AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, Vol 86. No.6. 1984. pps. 651-662.

*Helen B. Schwartzman, "Stories at Work: Play in an Organization Context" in TEXT, PLAY, AND STORY, 80-93.

Collateral: B. Babcock, "The Story in the Story: Metanarration in Folk Narrative. In Bauman. VERBAL ART AS PERFORMANCE.

-K. von Frisch, "Decoding the Language of the Bees," SCIENCE 185(1974):663-668.


-M. Landau, NARRATIVES OF HUMAN EVOLUTION. New Haven: Yale Press. 1991.

-Lutz Rohrich, FOLKTALES AND REALITY, Indiana Univ. Press. 1991.

-Seyfarth and D. Cheney, "How Monkeys See the World" in PRIMATE COMMUNICATION, C. Snowdon, C. Brown and M. Petersen, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge U. Press 1982



A Video, THE STORYTELLERS, will be shown.


VI.Cultural Diversity and Sameness in Storytelling: Types and Motifs.Snow White in North Africa. Sleeping Beauty Around the World: Readings:


*B. Bettleheim, "The Jealous Queen in "Snow White" and The Myth of Oedipus", in THE USES OF ENCHANTMENT" pps. 194-215.

*Sandra Gilbert and Susan Gubar, "The Queen's Looking Glass" in J. Zipes ed. DON'T BET ON THE PRINCE, New York, 1986 pp. 201-208.

*The Merseyside Fairy Tale Collective, "Snow White", IBID.pp. 74-80.

-S. S. Jones, "The Structure of Snow White" in Bottigheimer. pgs. 165-186.

Collateral: Aanti Aarne and Stith Thompson, TYPES OF THE FOLKTALE: A Classification and Biblio-graphy. Helsinki: FFComm. 1961,


-Alan Dundes, CINDERELLA: A FOLKLORE CASEBOOK. New York. 1982. Particularly A. K. Ramanujan, "Hanchi: A Kannada Cinderella" pp. 259-275.

-Esther Schely Newman, OUR LIVES ARE BUT STORIES: Narratives of Tunisian -Israeli Women. Detroit: Wayne State press. 2002.

-Livia Polanyi, TELLING THE AMERICAN STORY. Amsterdam. 1985

-1958.-Stith Thompson, "The Star Husband Tale" in THE STUDY OF FOLKLORE, Alan Dundes, ed. New York:Prentice Hall 1965. pgs 414-474.


-A. K. Ramanujan, "Is there an Indian Way of Thinking?" CONTRIB. TO INDIAN SOCIOLOGY, Vol. 23 (1) 1989. PP 41-58.

-Stith Thompson, THE MOTIF INDEX OF FOLK LITERATURE, 6 vols. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press 1947

-F. L. Utley, "The Migration of the Folktales: Four Channels to the Americas," CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY 15(1)(1974):5-25.

VII.The Same Old Story: Finitude in Motif, Theme, Plot and Character.


-E. Bruner, "Dialogic Narration and the Paradoxes of Masada" in TEXT, PLAY, AND STORY, pp. 56-79.

*G.A. Fine, "The Kentucky Fried Rat: Legends and Modern Society, Jour. Folklore Inst. Vol. XVII, # 2-3. 1980.

-W. H. Jansen, "The Surpriser Surprised: A Modern Legend" in READINGS IN AMERICAN FOLKLORE, Jan Brunvand, ed. New York: Norton. 1979. pgs. 64-90.

-P. Pouncey, "Bucephalus: A Commencement Address." Amherst Mass (xerox).

-S. Stark, "Harvardiana: Endless Replays," HARVARD MAGAZINE, November-December 1983, pp. 83-87.

Collateral: D. Bynum, THE DAEMON IN THE WOOD: A STUDY OF ORAL NARRATIVE PATTERNS, Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press. 1978.

-Gary Fine, "The Goliath Effect: Corporate Dominance and Mercantile Legends", J. AMERICAN FOLKLORE. Vol. 98, (1). 1985. 63-84.

-Gary Fine, "Mercantile Legends and the World Economy: Dangerous Imports from the Third World", WESTERN FOLKLORE, Vol. 48, (2) 1989. pp. 153-162.

-Stith Thompson, THE FOLKTALE. New York: Holt Rinehart 1946.

VIII.What We Have Lost: The Art of Memory and the Performance of the Word in an Oral Tradition.



Essay) Prospect Heights: Waveland Press 1984.

-A. Lord and M. Perry, THE SINGER OF TALES. Cambridge: Harvard University Press 1960.

Collateral: H. Glassie, PASSING THE TIME IN BALLYMENONE. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press 1982.

-J. Goody, THE DOMESTICATION OF THE SAVAGE MIND. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1977..



-Walter J. Ong, ORALITY AND LITERACY. London: Methuen 1982.

=================================Part II. May 6th to June 3rd=====================






Trope Theory in Anthropology


Anthropology 414

Spring 2001

March and April

Part I.

J.W. Fernandez

Bibliographic Note: This list of readings (Syllabus) contains the core references, articles and chapters, which will be brought into discussion in the lecture-discussions of this course. Articles by JWF, most of them found in Persuasions and Performances (1986) are indicated for convenience but are not requested reading indispensable previous to the discussion. They will be discussed in the lecture itself. There will also be a number of readings in JWF (ed) Beyond Metaphor: The Theory of Tropes in Anthropology, (1991) and JWF and Mary Huber (eds) Irony in Action (2001). Both of these works are available for purchase at the Seminary Coop Bookstore. The readings will be found on reserve. There are two required texts in this course, Dale Pesmen’s Russia and Soul, Cornell Press, 2000, and Clifford Geertz, Available Light, Princeton 2000. The first will be read in the context of other ethnography’s where sensitivity to the dynamic of the tropes are important to description and interpretation. The second will be read as an instance of argument anchored in mastery of metaphor. There is no Xeroxed packet of readings, although packets from former go-arounds are on reserve, as are also long-course syllabi from previous years. Some reference to these will be made in the first day of class.. Many articles, chapters and books listed there are optional as further and background reading and a selection of these may be brought into class discussion. This short course syllabus (for April) contains readings intended to be read previous and brought into discussion either by the whole class or by assigned individuals.. The Journal of Metaphor and Symbolic Activity (PN228) will be found on reserve

This term our course will consist of some 20 lecture-discussions beginning on Tuesday March 27th and ending on Thursday May 31. The first half of the course will mainly treat theoretical issues and problems which have been thematic in the study of metaphor since classical times. The second half of course will mainly discuss some of the recurrent metaphors the organic trope, the market and money trope, the genealogy trope, the enlightenment trope, the game trope, the territorial trope, the music trope etc.

The main responsibilities of the course, other than reading for discussion , are a 6 page midterm papers and a final 12 page paper (plus annotated bibliography). Students will be individually requested to present particular articles or chapters and will be asked to draw up a page outline (with several items of additional bibliography if appropriate) of their observations on these items to guide their discussion and that of the class. Alertness to the metaphors of everyday life will be a happy and appreciated mind set in any student The Midterm paper is due Tuesday May 1 in class. The final paper is due Monday June 4th at 5:00 PM in Haskell First Floor Offices.


"What then is truth? A mobile army of metaphors, metonymics, anthropomorphisms: in short, a sum of human relations which became poetically and rhetorically intensified, metamorphised, adorned, and after long usage seem to a nation fixed, canonic and binding; truths are illusions of which one has forgotten that they are illusions; worn out metaphors which have become powerless to effect the senses, coins which have their obverse effaced and now are no longer of account as coins but merely as metal." Nietzsche. "On Truth in the Ultramoral Sense" (1871) *******


I. Tuesday March 27th. An-trope-ology: Figuration, Indirection and Motility in Human Understanding and Action: Introduction to the Syllabus .

Thursday April 29th: Figuration and Poesis as Fundamental and Universal Mental Activity?:

A. Universals and Particulars

C. Brown and S. Witkowski, "Figurative Naming in a Universalist Perspective", American Ethnologist, Vol.8 (2), 1982. pp. 596-615.

J. Fernandez, Patrolling the Border: Experiments on the Frontiers of Poetics (in MS: Boundary Conditions and Border Crossings,) Review Article, American Anthropologist, Vol. 98. (4):853-856. December

Raymond Gibbs, The Poetics of Mind: figurative thought, language, and understanding, New York, New York: Cambridge, 1994. Chap 4. "Metaphor in Language and Thought," pgs 192-207., "Metaphor in Culture."


III. Tuesday April 3rd: Some Classical and Early Modern Considerations. Predecessors and Contemporaries:


A. Aristotelian Analogies and Their Persuasions:

The Poetics. 1457(1) to 1458(16); 1459(1 to 14).

Treatise on Rhetoric. Book III. Part 1. and 2. 1403(2) to 405(33). Part 3. 1406 (5-18); Part 41406 (20) to 1407 (25); Part 6.; Part 7.; Part 8.; Part 9.; Part 10. 1410 (8 to 28); Part 11.; Part 12. to 1414.

B. Vico: "Man in not understanding makes everything."

-Hayden White, "The Tropics of History: The Deep Structure of the New Science." Chap. 9 in Tropics Of Discourse, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins. 1976. pp. 197-217.

IV. Thursday April 5th "Ethnographic Gardens and Their Magic." Boas, Radin, Malinowski and Levi Strauss.

C F. Boas, "Metaphorical Expressions in the Language of the Kwakiutl Indians", in Race, Language and Culture, Chicago Ed. 1982 (1940) pp. 232-239.

C *S. Tambiah, "The Magical Power of Words", Man, Vol. 3 (2). 1968. pp. 175-208.

V. Tuesday April 10th. "Metaphors All The Way Down" On the Nature of Enlightenment through Wary Reasoning and Thick Description." Derrida and Geertz:

J. Derrida, "White Mythology; Metaphor in the Text of Philosophy," in New Literary History, Vol VI. (1) 1974 (1971): pgs 5-74.

C.Geertz, Available light : anthropological reflections on philosophical topics / Clifford Geertz. Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, 2000.

VI. Thursday April 12th: The Inchoate World and Some Strategies for Coping With It:

A. On the Inchoate and The Divination (Predication) of Identity:

J. W. Fernandez, "The Mission of Metaphor in Expressive Culture" in Persuasions and Performances. Chap 2.

J. W. Fernandez, "The Dark at the Bottom of the Stairs: The Inchoate in Inquiry and Some Strategies for Coping With It" in Persuasions and Performances. Chap. 9.

Stewart Guthrie, "A Cognitive Theory of Religion", Current Anthropology. Vol 21 (2) 1980. pp. 181-203. See also Pascal Boyer(op cit)

R. Werbner, "The Superabundence of Understanding: Kalenga Rhetoric and Domestic Divination", American Anthropologist, Vol 75 (6). 1973. pp. 1414-1440.

VII. Tuesday April 17th: Rhetorical Categories and Critical Communication: The Social Poetics of Putting Up/Putting Down, Putting Out/ Putting In.

J.W. Fernandez, "Poetry in Motion: Being Moved by Amusement, Mockery, and Mortality in the Asturian Mountains." in Persuasions and Performances. Chap.3.

B. Grofman, "Richard Nixon As Pinnochio, Richard II. and Santa Claus: the Use of Allusion in Political Satire". J. Of Politics. Vol 51 (1). pp. 165-173.

E. Kittay and A. Lehrer, "Semantic Fields and the Structure of Metaphor." Studies in Language. Vol.V.(1), pp. 31-63.

Adrienne Lehrer, "Critical Communication: Wine and Therapy" in L.K. Obler and L. Mennn eds. Exceptional Language and Linguistics. N.Y.:Academic Press. 1982. pp. 67-79.

VIII.  Root Metaphors and World Hypotheses:

A. Thursday April 19th: Development and Decline: The Organic Metaphor -- The Mechanism Metaphor.

Karl Deutsch, "Mechanism, Organicism and Society: Some Models in Natural and Social Science" Philosophy of Science, Vol. 18. pp. 230-252. 1951.

C *John Elliott, "Self-Perception and Decline in Early 17th Century Spain.. Past and Present, Feb. 1977. pp. 41-61.

C Gustavo Esteva, "Development: Metaphor Myth, Threat. Development Seeds of Change, Vol. 3. 1985. pp. 78-79.

C S.J. Gould, "Four Metaphors in Three Generations," 20 Year Commemoration of "This View of Life," Natural History, Vol 102. #12. Dec 1992. pgs 12-22.

C Robert Nisbet, Social Change and History: Aspects of The Western Theory of Development. N.Y. 1965. Chap.2. "The Augustinian Metaphor", pgs 63-103; Chap 8. "Reflections on a Metaphor", pg 240-267.

C *G. Saccaro Battisti, "Changing Metaphors of Political Structure", J. of the History of Ideas Vol. 44.(1). 1983. pp. 31-54.

B. Tuesday April 24th: Cultural Reservoirs: Root Metaphors, Organizing Metaphors, Hypothetical Images.

R. H. Brown, "Social Theory as Metaphor: On The Logic of Discovery for the Sciences of Conduct." in Theory and Society, Vol 3,(2), 1976. pgs. 169-198.

C. Geertz, "Blurred Genres: the Refiguration of Social Thought", in Local Knowledge: Furthur Essays in Interpretive Anthropology, N.Y. Basic Books. 1985.pp. 19-35.",

S. Pepper, World Hypotheses, Berkeley: Univ California Press. 1968 (1942). Chap. V. Root Metaphors. pp.84-114.

A. Salmond, "Theoretical Landscapes: On Cross-Cultural Conceptions of Knowledge", in Semantic Anthropology. D. Parkin (ed.). London 1982. pp 65-87.

IX.  Metaphoric Systems: I. The Two Planes of Existence:

A. Thursday April 26th : Metaphor and Metonym, Polytropy:

C D. Durham, J. Fernandez, "Tropical Dominions: The Figurative Struggle Over Domains of Belonging and Apartness in Africa," in Beyond Metaphor, pgs. 190-210.

C P. Friedrich, "Polytropy," in Beyond Metaphor, JWF (ed), pgs. 19-55.

C R. Jacobson and M. Halle, Fundamentals of Language, The Hague: Mouton. 1956. Part II. Two Aspects of Language and Two Types of Aphasic Disturbance. pp. 689-96

X. Metaphoric Systems II: Totality and Coherence.

B. Tuesday May 1.: Used and Unused Domains of Experience and The Great Chain of Experiential Being.

M. T. Hodgen, Early Anthropology in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. Philadelphia: U. Penn Press. 1971. Chap. "the Place of the savage in the Chain of Being". pp. 386-430.

Lakoff and M. Turner, "Conceptual Metaphors in Everyday Life," Journal of Philosophy, Vol. LXVII. (8). 1980. pp. 453-481.

G. Lakoff and M. Turner, More Than Cool Reason: A Field Guide to Poetic Metaphor. Chicago: U. Chicago Press. 1989. Chap 4. "the Great Chain of Being" and "Conclusion". pp. 160-216.

Quinn, "The Cultural Basis of Metaphor," in JWF (ed) Beyond Metaphor, 1991. pgs. 56-93


Part II. May

Note: A 2-3 page response paper to Pesmen, Russia and Soul, will be due May 25th. These will be discussed in the context of final illustrative overviews on Tuesday June 6th, the final day of class. Final papers with abstract of argument (12 pages max plus annotated bibliography)are due Thursday June 7th at 5:00 PM in Haskell 101.

XI. Thursday May 3rd: Pathologies of Thought: Genealogical and Kindred Paths and Where They Lead:

J.W.Fernandez, "Genealogical Fictions and Their Uses" (ms)

William Sewell, >Three Temporalities: Towards an Eventful Sociology,@ in T. J. McDonald (ed) The Historic Turn in the Human Sciences, Ann Arbor: Univ. Of Michigan Press. 1996. Pgs. 245-281.

Mark Turner, Death is the Mother of Beauty : mind, metaphor, criticism, Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 1987.


Michael Jackson, 1989, Paths Towards a Clearing: radicalemeeeee empiricism and ethnographical inquiry. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

XII. Tuesday, May 8th. Generation and Gender.

A.B Kehoe, "The Metonymic Pole and Social Roles" Journal of Anthropological Research, Vol 27. (2) pp. 266-274. 1973,

K. March, "Weaving, Writing and Gender", Man, Vol.18. (4): 729-744. 1983.

E. Martin, The Woman in the Body: A Cultural Analysis of Reproduction. Boston: Beacon Press. 1987. Chap.3 and 4. "Medical Metaphors of Women's Bodies",pp. 27-67.

M.Z. Rosaldo, and J.M. Atkinson, "Man the Hunter and Woman: Metaphors for the Sexes in Ilongot Magical Spells" in The Interpretation of Culture. Roy Willis (ed.). New York:John Wiley, 1975: 43-75.

XIII. Thursday May 10th: The Anatomy of Metaphor.

A. The Microcosm and the Macrocosm:

B. E. F. Beck, "The Symbolic Merger of Body, Space and Cosmos in Hindu Tamilnad" Contributions to Indian Sociology, Vol. 10. (2) 1976. pp. 213-243.

S. P. Blier, The Anatomy of Architecture: Ontology and Metaphor in Batamaliba Architectural Expression. New York: Cambridge. 1987. Chap. 1 and Chap. 4., "Architectural Exemplars of Cosmology", and Architectural Self-Images" pp. 35-57, 118-133.

J.W. Fernandez, "The Body in Bwiti" J. of Religion in Africa. Vol. XX. (1) 1990. pp. 91-111.

C. Ginzburg, The Cheese and the Worms: The Cosmos of a 16th Century Miller, New York: Penguin. 1982.

C. Levi Strauss, Structural Anthropology, N.Y.: Anchor 1967. Chap. IX and X. "The Sorcerer and His Magic"," The Effectiveness of Symbols". pp. 161- 201.

D. Sharon, Wizard of the Four Winds: A Shaman's Story. New York: the Free Press. 1978. Chap. 6. "Sacred Space: Duality and the Four Winds". pp. 62- 72. Chap. 8., "Sacred Time: The Seasons of the Seance" pp. 101-111.

R. Willis, "The Body as Metaphor: Synthetic Observations on An African Artwork," in Anita Jacobson Widding (ed), Body and Space: Symbolic Models in African Cosmology. Uppsala: Almquist and Wiksell. 1991. pgs. 271-281.

XIV. Tuesday May 15th:The Body in the Mind: Healing, Returning to the Whole and Well Being.

Thomas Csordas, "Embodiment As a Paradigm for Anthropology", Ethos Vol.18 (1) 1989. pp. 5-47.

Renat Devisch, "Symbol and Symptom Among the Yaka of Zaire,' in A, Jacobson Widding (ed), Body and Space, op cit, pgs. 283-302.

J.W. Fernandez, 'The Argument of Images and the Experience of Returning to the Whole" in Persuasions and Performances, Chap. 8.

B.N. Colby, "Well-being: A Theoretical Program" American Anthropologist, Vol 89 (4), 1987.pgs 879-893.

M. Herzfeld, "Closure as Cure: Tropes in the Exploration of bodily and Social Disorder", Current Anthropology. Vol 27 (2): 107-120.

M. Jackson, "Thinking Through the Body: An Essay in Understanding Metaphor" Social Analysis. No. 14, Dec. 1983. pp. 127-148.

Emily Martin, "Towards An Anthropology of Immunology: The Body as Nation State," Medical Anthropology Quarterly, Vol. 4 (4) 1990. Pgs 410-426.

L. Rhodes, "This Will Clear Your Mind: the Use of etaphors for Medication in Psychiatric Settings"Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, Vol. 8. (1), 1984. pp. 49-70.

XV. Thursday May 17th. Beyond Metaphor:The Play of Tropes, From the "Great Culture Heroes" and Their Militant Metaphors to the Masters of Irony: Consciousness Raising, Consciousness Questioning.

Homo ludens": "advocatus diaboli" ,"homo literalis" and other forms of "True, False and Double Consciousness".

Mary Catherine Bateson, "Survivor: It’s Just a Game Really!" NYT August 27. 2000.

J.W. Fernandez, Mary Huber "Introduction" to J. Fernandez and M. Huber (eds.) Irony, Practice and The Moral Imagination, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 2001

M. Herzfeld, "Exploring a Metaphor of Exposure" J. of American Folklore, Vol 93. (365) 1979. pp.285-301.

B. J. Isbell, "The Metaphoric Process: "From Culture to Nature and Back Again." in G. Urton (ed), Animal Myths and Metaphors in South America, Salt Lake: Univ. pf Utah Press. 1985. pg 285-313.

T. Turner, "We Are Parrots."Twins Are Birds": Play of Tropes as Operational Structure." in JWF (ed), Beyond metaphor, pgs. 121-158.


R. M. Keesing, "Exotic Readings of Cultural Texts,"Current Anthropology, Vol 30.(4) 1989. pp.459-479.

R. Rorty, Contingency, Irony and Solidarity, New York:Cambridge Press. 1989.

B.L. Whorf, "The Relation of Traditional Thought and Behavior to Language" in Language, Thought and Reality. Cambridge: MIT Press. 1956. pp. 134-159

XVI. Thursday, May 22th: The Evocative and Moral Power of the Tropes:

E. Bruner and P. Gorfain, "Dialogic Narration and the Paradoxes of Masada", in Text, Play and Story: The Construction and Reconstruction of Self andSociety, E. M Bruner (ed.) Washington: AES. 1984.pp. 56-79.

J.W. Fernandez, 1998, "Trees of Knowledge of Self and Other in Culture: On Models for the Moral Imagination. In Laura Rival and M. Bloch (eds.) The social life of trees : anthropological perspectives on tree symbolism. London: Berg. Pgs: 81-110.

G. Lakoff. "Metaphor and War: the Metaphorical System used to Justify War in the Gulf." (MS) 1991.


J. Clifford, "On Ethnographic Allegory" in Writing Culture: the Poetics and Politics of Ethnography, Berkeley: Univ. of Cal. Press. 1986. pp. 98-121.

G. Lakoff, Moral politics : what conservatives know that liberals don't. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. 1996

D. Pesmen, "Reasonable and Unreasonable Worlds: Some Expectations of Coherence in Culture Implied by the Prohibition of Mixed Metaphor" in Beyond Metaphor: The Theory of Tropes in Anthropology. J.W. Fernandez. (ed) Stanford: Stanford U. Press. 1991.

XVII.  Thursday May 24th: Escaping Logocentrism: Visual and Musical Metaphors:

William Beeman, "The Tropes of Music" (ms)

E. H. Gombrich, "Visual Metaphors of Value in Art" in. Meditations on a hobby horse : and other essays on the theory of art. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1985.

XVIII. Tuesday May 29th. The Economic Animal: Market and Money Metaphors and Economistic Tropes in Everyday Life. Gustav Peebles.

J. Carstens, ‘Cooking Money: the symbolic transformation of means of exchange in a Malay fishing village. In J. Perry and M. Bloch, money and the morality of exchange. Cambridge 1989. 117-141.

J. and J. Comaroff, "Goodly Beasts and Beastly Goods: cattle and commodities in South Africa. American Ethnologist. Vol 17 (2) 1990 195-216.

S. Freud, "Character and Anal Eroticism," in Collected Works. Vol IX. Pgs 169-175. Hogarth 1985

K. Marx, "The Power of Money in Bourgeois Society," in Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844. Moscow. 1967. Pg 126-131.

XIX. Thursday May 31st: Meaningful Methods, Meaningful Ethnography:

Fernandez and Herzfeld, "In Search of Meaningful Methods" (op cit)



June 6th Envoi and Coda: Successors: Some Present and Future Critics and Users of Metaphor Theory.

Pascal Boyer, The Naturalness of Religious Ideas: A Cognitive Theory of Religion California. 1994/

Steven Caton, Peaks of Yemen I Summon: Poetry as Cultural Practice in a North Yemeni Tribe. California 1990.

Thomas Csordas, The Sacred Self: A Cultural Phenomenology of Charismatic Healing. California. 1994.

Margaret Egnor, The sacred spell and other conceptions of life in Tamil culture Chicago 1978.

James Fernandez, Bwiti: An Ethnography of the Religious Imagination in Africa. Princeton, 1982.

Paul Friedrich, The Princes of Naranja. Texas 1986.

Roger M. Keesing, Custom and Confrontation: The Kwaio Struggle for Cultural Autonomy, Chicago 1992.

Tanya Luhrmann, Persuasions of the Witch's Craft: Ritual Magic in Contemporary England. Cambridge: Harvard. 1989.

Dale Pesmen, Russian and Soul: A Meta-physical Ethnography, Cornell 2000.

Elizabeth A. Povenelli, "Might Be Something: The Language of Indeterminacy in Australian Aboriginal Land Use," Man Vol 28 (4) 1993. pgs. 680-703.

James Weiner, The empty place: poetry, space, and being among the Foi of             Papua New Guinea. Bloomington: Indiana Press. 1991.



Narrative Ethnography


A Seminar: Anthropology 530

Spring 2000  --J.W.Fernandez



Catalogue Statement: A study of ethnography as a problem of narration and emplotment based mainly on the study of the reflexive ethnographies written in the last fifteen years under the epistemological and methodological pressures of phenomenology, critical theory, intepretivism and postmodernism. To be considered: the reflective attempts by earlier anthropologists to better render the field experience; the use of rhetorical devices and image evocation in ethnography; attempts at expanding emotional range in the ethnographic sensorium; the gendering of the experience of the "other"; dialogic engagement with the "other"; and the "dramatic politics" of self-other representation. Critical comparison is made to the classic ethnographies and their commitment to "theory building" and the "archival function." Mainly to be considered will be those ethnographies that have won the Victor Turner Prize for Ethnographic Writing of the American Anthropological Association in the last decade

The Nature of Our QUEST and Our Responsibilities to It:

Whatever the interpretivism and post-modernism of the past quarter century are, and we will endeavor to define them for our purposes -- in much they seem to be a re-phrasing of the late 19th century demand by Dilthey and Weber and others that we bring "verstehen" and "einfuhlung" to our "geisteswissenshaft" -- they have certainly made a profound critique of the way we do business: by writing ethnographies. In this seminar we will try to get a sense of that critique and its consequences for that experiment in the communication of "the other" (and more recently the "self" in relation to the "other") which is the actual writing of ethnography. After more than two decades there are many ethnographies and a range of "experimentations" to choose from and our reach much exceeds our grasp. As a strategy of selection we will take those ethnographies that have, in the last three years, won or been highly ranked in both the AAA annual Victor Turner Prize competition in ethnographic writing and the AES Prize offered under a similar rubric. But even here we have had to make difficult choices.

Though now a decade old there are three basic, reflective collections which we will consult throughout the course: James Clifford's collection of articles The Predicament of Culture, Roger Sanjek's Fieldnotes, and Marc Manganaro's Modernist Anthropology. Clifford is a central voice in post-modern anthropology who has been fundamental to the way it has constituted itself as narrative and been understood. Certainly central and fundamental to any ethnography are the fieldnotes out of which it is constructed. And the temporal situation of our materials wrestling between modernism and post modernism is what we ponder. A recent collection of essays on our subject matter is Okely and Callaway's ASA Monograph, Anthropology and Autobiography from which we take several readings. The four recent winners of the Victor Turner Prize we will read are Lila Abu Lughod's, Writing Women's Worlds, Ruth Behar's Translated Woman, Robert Desjarlais, Homeless Blues, and Jean Briggs, Inuit Morality Play. As a complement to Brigg=s isolation of our understanding we will read Keith Basso=s spatialization of our understanding in Wisdom Sits in Places. For the final weeks readings we will make a choice among the highly ranked ethnographies submitted for the Turner Prize for 1997-1999.

In the sessions that these ethnographies are read all members of the seminar will be be prepared to offer a 10-15 minute critique of the ethnography or a critical response to that critique. There will be one midflight papers of 5 pages maximum and a final paper which may be reworked from these midterms into a final paper of 10 pages maximum. Course responsibilities, then, will consist of the asterisked assignments (*) chosen out of a more extensive syllabus, these potential book discussions each summarized in two pages to be submitted after class, the mid-course paper and the final paper. Most readings will be found on reserve.

Keywords might be a useful focus of our discussions. The problem of defining Narrative Ethnography might be addressed as a problem of family resemblances among ethnographies exhibiting some or all of the characteristics suggested by these words.. For the utility of this synthetic approach and for an argument of the dynamic place that keywords play both in the academy and in ideological dispute see Raymond Williams, Keywords, 1982, and Rodney Needham, Primordial Characters, 1978.

This is the Short Course Syllabus containing articles or chapters for group or individual discussion.. The Long Course Syllabus was circulated the first day of class with many more collateral readings some of which may be entered into discussion but are not part of the requirements of the course.


I. Tuesday April 4: Whom Are We Writing For, About What and How and From Where: Detachment Attachment and Communicative Engagement.


-Richard Dooling, "Bush Pigs," New Yorker , Oct 10, 1994. pg 82-88.

-David Sutton, "Is Anybody Out There?" Critique of Anthropology, Vol 11 (1), 1991. pp. 91-104.


II. Thursday April 6:Pre-texts and Anticipations or just "Confessional" Literature: Predecessors in the Quest in an Age of Epistemological Anxiety:

-A. A.L. Kroeber, "Earth-Tongue Mohave" in The Nature of Culture" Chap 29. Chicago:U.Chicago Press. 1952.(1922) pgs. 233-243.

-James Clifford, "On Ethnographic Authority" Chapter 1. in "The Predicament."

*-John Dorst, "Re-reading Mules and Men: Towards the Death of the Ethnographer" Cultural Anthropology, Vol II. 1987.pgs 305-318.

Fieldnotes: Lutkehaus,Sanjek (The Secret Life of Fieldnotes)

Modernist Anthropology:Gordan, The Politics of Ethnographic Authority,

Collateral, early reflexive ethnography.

B. Zora Neale Hurston, Mules and Men, Harper. (1935) 1990.

-Hortense Powdermaker, Stranger and Friend: The Ways of An Anthropologist.

New York: Norton. 1966.

-E. Clews Parsons, American Indian Life, Univ. Nebraska Press 1967 (1922).

-Hortense Powdermaker, After Freedom: A Cultural Study in the Deep South. New York: Atheneum. 1968 (c 1939).

III. Tuesday April 11: Pro-texts and Sub-Texts in the Quest:

-J. Clifford, "On Ethnographic Allegory" in Writing Culture: The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography" J. Clifford and G. Marcus. eds. 1986. pgs. 98-121.

-James Peacock, "Society as Narrative," in R. F. Spencer and M. Spiro eds. Forms of Symbolic Action, Proceedings of the American Ethnological Society 1968. Seattle 1969. pgs 167-177.

-B. Tedlock,=From Participant Observation to the Observation of Participation: the Emergence of Narrative Ethnography,= Journal of Anthropological Research, Vol 47 (1): 69-94. 1991

-D. Tedlock, "The Analogical Tradition and the Emergence of a Dialogical Anthropology, J. of Anthropological Research, 1979. Vol. 35, pgs. 482-493.

-R. Thornton, "Narrative Ethnography in Africa: 1850-1920. Man. ns Vol 18. 1983. pp. 502-520.

Fieldnotes: Lederman, "Pretexts for Ethnography"

-Modernist Anthropology: Vickery, Frazer and the Elegiac, Roth, Frazer's "The Golden Bough".

Collateral Ethnographies: M. Shostak, Nisa: The Life and Works of a !Kung Woman. Cambridge 1981.

-Eleanor Smith Bowen, Return to Laughter, Anchor 1956.


IV. Thursday April 13: Con-texts to the Interpretive Quest: Patriarchal Reactions?:

*-T.O. Beidelman, Review Article,J.Clifford, "The Predicament of Culture" Anthropos, (Rezensionen) Vol. 84. 1989, 263-267.

*-J.W. Fernandez, Review, "The Predicament of Culture" American Anthropologist. Vol.92, No.3 Sept. 1990. pgs.823-824.

-R. Keesing, "Anthropology's Interpretive Quest" Cultural Anthropology, Vol 28 (2). 1987. 161-176.

-F.E. Mascia-Lees (et. al) "The Post-Modernist Turn in Anthropology: Cautions from a Feminist Perspective" Signs, Vol 15, No.1. Autumn 1989. 7-35.

-N. Polier and W. Roseberry, "Tristes Tropes: Post-modern anthropologists encounter the other and discover themselves. Economy and Society. Vol 18:2: 245-265.

*-P. Steven Sangren, "Rhetoric and the Authority of Ethnography: : Post-Modernism and the Social Reproduction of Texts. Current Anthropology, Vol 29#3. June 1988. pgs 405-435.

-Fieldnotes: Robert J. Smith, Appropriating Someone Else's Fieldnotes".

*Modernist Anthropology, Webster, "The Historical Materialist Critique of Post-Modern Ethnography."

Collateral Ethnography And Its Critic:

-V. Crapanzano, Tuhami: Portrait of a Moroccan. Chicago 1980.

-C. Geertz, "I-Witnessing: Malinowski's Children" Chap. 4 in Works And Lives, Stanford. 1988.


VI.  Emergent Dialogics: Tuesday April 18th: Putting Up, Putting Down, Reciprocation.

-J. Clifford, The Predicament of Culture. Rest of Part One in "Predicaments"

V. Crapanzano, "Herme's Dilemma: the Masking of Subversion in Ethnographic Description" in Writing Culture pgs 51-76.

K-H. Kohl. >Against Dialogue,@ Paideuma, Vol 44: 51-58. 1998.

Fieldnotes: *-Cristine Obbo, "Adventures With Fieldnotes".

MODERNIST ANTHROPOLOGY: *-Crapanzano, Afterword."

Collateral Ethnographies:

-Kevin Dwyer, Moroccan Dialogues: Anthropology in Question, Baltimore. 1982.

-Loring M. Danforth, Firewalking and Religious Healing, Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press. 1989.


VII. The Reality and Communicability(Transportability) of the Emotions: Thursday April 20th...

-Ruth Behar, "Death and Memory: from Santa Maria del Monte to Miami Beach." Cultural Anthropology, Vol.6 No.3. August 1991. pgs. 346-384.

-Renato Rosaldo, "Grief and a Headhunter's Rage: On the Cultural Force of the Emotions," in Text Play and Story: The Construction and reconstruction of Self and Society. E. M. Bruner, ed. Washington: AES. 1984. pgs

-Unni Wikan, "Beyond the Words: The Power of Resonance," American Ethnologist, Vol 19 (3) 1992. pp. 460-482.

Fieldnotes: *-Ottenburg, "Thirty Years of Fieldnotes"

**Ethnographic Assignment: Ruth Behar, Translated Woman: Crossing the Border with Esperanza's Story.

Collateral Ethnographies:

-Ruth Behar, The Vulnerable Observor; Anthropology That Breaks Your Heart Beacon 1996.

-Jean Briggs, Never in Anger: Portrait of An Eskimo Family, Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press. 1970


VIII. Tuesday April 25th: The Taste of Ethnographic Things: On the Cultural Sensorium:

David Howes, "Olfaction and Transition: An essay on the ritual- uses of smell", Canadian Rev. Soc. and Anth. Vol 24(3) 1987. pgs. 398-416.

*Paul Stoller, The Taste of Ethnographic Things, Phil: U.Penn Press. 1990. Chapters. Introduction, 1,2 and 8.

*-Steven Tyler, "The Vision Quest in the West or What the Mind's Eye Sees. J. of Anthropological Research, 40,(1): pgs 23-40. 1984." *Fieldnotes: Sanjek, "A Vocabulary for Fieldnotes."


David Howes, The Varieties of Sensory Experience: A Sourcebook in the Anthropology of the Senses, Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press. 1991.

Collateral Ethnographies:

E. Valentine Daniel, Fluid Signs: Being a Person the Tamil Way, Berkeley 1984.

Steven Feld, Sound and Sentiment: Birds, Weeping, Poetics and Song in Kaluli Expression. Phil: U.Penn Press. 1982.

Paul Stoller and Cheryl Olkes, In Sorcery's Shadow: A Memoir of Aprenticeship Among the Songhay of Niger. Chicago: U. of Chicago Press, 1987.

Paul Stoller, Fusion of the Worlds: An Ethnography of Possession Among the Songhay of Niger. Chicago. 1989.


IX. Thursday April 27th: On Ethnographic Inquisition.The Rhetoric of Objectivity and the Politics of Representation:

-J. Clifford, Chap. 12, "Identity in Mashpee" in Predicament.

-Renato Rosaldo, "From the Door of His Tent: The Fieldworker and the Inquisitor" in Clifford and Marcus,eds. Writing Culture. California 1986. pgs 77-97. in Culture and Truth

-Richard Handler, Nationalism and the Politics of Culture in Quebec. Madison: U. Wis. Press. 1988. Chapter 1.  "Meditations on la fete of Nov. 15."

-Fred Myers, "The Politics of Representation: Anthropological Discourse and Australian Aborigines. American Ethnologist, Vol 13 (1), pgs 138-153.

-Fieldnotes, Allen and Orna Johnson, "Quality into Quantity: On the Measurement Potential of Ethnographic Fieldnotes".

**Ethnographic Assignment: Lila Abu Lughod=s Writing Women's Worlds will be discussed

Collateral Ethnographies:

L. Abu-Lughod, Veiled Sentiments: Honor and Poetry in a Bedouin Society, Berkeley: Univ of California. 1986.

Smadar Lavie, The Poetics of Military Occupation: Mzeina Allegories of Bedouin Identity Under Israeli and Egyptian Rule. Berkeley: Univ. og California Press. Joseba Zulaika, Basque Violence: Metaphor and Sacrament. Reno: Univ. of Nevada Press. 1988.

-Fred Myers, Pintupi Country, Pintupi Self: Sentiment Place and Politics among Western Desert Aborigines. Washington: Smithsonian Press. 1986.


X.  Poetic Emplotment, Poetic Displacement, Poetic Composition: Breakthrough in Self and Social Life:

-Edward Bruner, "Ethnography as Narrative" in V.Turner and E. Bruner (eds.) The Anthropology of Experience, Illinois 1986. pgs. 139-155.*

-J. Clifford, Part Two, "Displacements", in Predicament.

-J. Davis, "Tense in Ethnography: Some Political Considerations," in Okely and Callaway, Anthropology and Autobiography, pgs 205-220.

-Paul Friedrich, "Dialogic Breakthrough: Catalysis and Synthesis in Life-Changing Dialogue." in The Dia-logic Emergence of Culture. B. Mannheim and D. Tedlock. eds. Phil: U. Penn Press. 1989. (ms)

-K. Hastrup, "Writing Ethnography: State of the Art," in Okely and Callaway, Anthropology and Autobiography, pgs. 116-133.


-Ankersmit, F. Narrative Logic: A Semantic Analysis of the Historian's Language. Nijhoff 1983.

-J.W. Fernandez, Bwiti: An Ethnography of the Religious Imagination in Africa.. Princeton 1982.

-Paul Friedrich, The Princes of Naranja: An Anthrohistorical Method, Texas: Univ. of Texas Press. 1986.

-Michael Herzfeld, The Poetics of Manhood: Contest and Identity in a Cretan Mountain Village, Princeton, 1985.

-Hayden White, Metahistory: the Historical Imagination in 19th Century Europe. Baltimore, 1973.


XI. On Post-Modern Ethnography and the Perspective of Gender.

-Lila Abu-Lughod, "Writing Against Culture", Chapter 8 in Recapturing Anthropology, R. G. Fox. (ed.) Albuquerque: SAR Press. 1991.

-Edward Ardener, "Belief and the Problem of Women" in Perceiving Women, New York, 1972

-Roger Keesing, "Kwaio Women Speak: The Micro-Politics of Auto-biography in a Solomon Island Society" American Anthropologist, Vol 87. No. 1 (1984) pgs 27-39.

-Sherry Ortner and Harriet Whitehead, "Introduction: Accounting for Sexual meanings", in Sexual Meanings: The Cultural Construction of Gender and Sexuality. Cambridge, 1981.

-Marilyn Strathern, "An Awkward Relationship: The Case of Feminism and Anthropology", Signs, (Winter 1987) pgs.288-296.

-Fieldnotes, Margery Wolf, "Chinanotes: Engendering Anthropology."

Modernist Anthropology: *-R. Handler, "Ruth Benedict and the Modernist Sensibility."

**Etnographic Assignment: Jean Briggs, Inuit Morality Play.

Collateral Ethnographies:

-Janice Boddy, Wombs and Alien Spirits: Women, Men and the Zar cult in northern Sudan. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press. 1989.

-Sally Cole, Women of the Praia: Work and Lives in a Portuguese Coastal Community. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press. 1991.

-Dorinne Kondo, Crafting Selves: power, gender and discourses of identity in a Japanese workplace, Chicago:Univ of Chicago Press.


-Patricia Hill Collins, "The Social Construction of Black Feminist Thought,' Signs Vol. 14 (4) 1989.

.Evelyn Brooks Higgenbotham, "African-American's Woman's History and the Metalanguage of Race," Signs, Vol 17. (2) 1992. pg 270-274.

-Micaela di Leonardo, (ed) Gender At The Crossroads of Knowledge: Feminist Anthropology in the Post-Modern Era, Berkeley: U.Cal Press. 1991.

-Micaela di Leonardo Exotics at home : anthropologies, others, American modernity, Chicago:1998.

-Judith Stacey, "Can There Be A Feminist Ethnography?" in Women's Studies International Forum, Vol. 11 (1). 1988. 15-35.


XII. On "The Arts of Memory" and "Capturing" the Reader's (and the Writer's) Imagination: Evocation, Coherence Momentum and "Montage" in Narrativity. Week of May 11th .

-E. Bruner and P. Gorfain, "Dialogic Narration and The Paradoxes of Masada,"in Text, Play and Story: the Construction and Reconstuction of Self and Society. Washington: American Ethnological Society. 1984. pgs. 56-79.

-Renato Rosaldo, "Ilongot Hunting as Story and Experience",in Turner and Bruner. IBID. pgs. 97-138.

-Victor Turner, "Social Dramas and Stories About Them," Critical Inquiry, 7(1): 141-168

-M. Taussig, "Montage" and "To Become a Healer, Chaps 27 and 28. in Shamanism, Colonialism and the Wild Man".

-Hayden White, "The Value of Narrativity in the Representation of Reality" in Critical Inquiry 7(1): 5-28. 1980.

-Michael Fischer, "Ethnicity and the Arts of Memory", in Writing Culture, Clifford and Marcus eds. 1986. pgs. 194-233.

Fieldnotes: *-David Plath, "Field notes, Filed notes and the Conferring of Note."

Modernist Anthropology: *-Strathern, The Persuasive Fictions of Anthropology.

**Ethnographic Assignment: Robert Desjarlais, Homeless Blues.

Collateral Ethnographies:

-Ankersmit, F. History and Tropology: The Rise and Fall of Metaphor. California, 1994.

-Michael Jackson, Barawa and the Way That Birds Fly in the Sky: An Ethnographic Novel. Washington: Smithsonian Press. 1986.

John O. Stewart, Drinkers, Drummers and Decent Folks:Etnographic Narratives of Village Trinidad, NY: Suny.1988.


XIII. "Institutionalized Ignorance," "Destructive Analysis," and "The Sense of Proportion," in Ethnography: On The Framing of Ethnographic Inquiry With Due Respect for the Opinions of Its Subjects!". Week of May 18th..

-Richard Handler, "On Dialogue and Destructive Analysis: Problems in Narrating Nationalism and Ethnicity"Journal of Anthropological Research, Vol. No. 1985, pgs 171-181.

-Fredric Jameson, "Postmodernism, or The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism," New Left Review, 146. 53-92.

-G. Marcus and M. Fischer, "Taking Account of World Historical Political Economy: Knowable Communities in Larger Systems", Chap 4. in Anthropology As Cultural Critique:An Experimental Moment in the Human Sciences. Chicago.1986.

-N. Rapport, "From Affect to Analysis: The Biography of an Interaction in an English Village. in Okely and Casllaway, pgs.193-204.

-N. Rapport, AWriting Individual Knowledge and Personal Relations: Eschewing the Paths to Impersonalization,@ in Transcendent Individual in press.

-Fieldnotes, Roger Sanjek, "On Ethnographic Validity."

-Modernist Anthropology: Manganaro, "Textual Play, Power and Cultural Critique,

**Ethnographic Assignment: Keith Basso: Wisdom Sits in Places.Tuesday May 24th.

Collateral Ethnographies:

Michael Jackson, Paths Towards a Clearing: Towards Radical Ethnography. Bloomington: Univ. of Indiana Press. 1987.

Michael Jackson, At Home in the World. Duke 1996

Marilyn Strathern, Partial Connections. London: Rowman and Littlefield. 1991.

M. Taussig, Shamanism, Colonialism and the Wild Man: A Studyin Terror and Healing. Chicago. 1986.

E. Wilmsen, Land Filled With Flies: A Political Economy of the Kalahari, Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. 1989.


XIV. Meditations on Narrative Perspective and the Moral Imagination:

*-Clifford Geertz, "Thinking as a Moral Act," Antioch Review (Xerox)

*-Mark Johnson, Moral Imagination:Implications of Cognitive Science For Ethics. Chapter 6. Chicago 1993.


Ethnographic Assignment: To be chosen!

Collateral Ethnography:

-Thomas O. Beidelman, The Moral Imagination in Kuguru Modes of Thought. Smithsonian: 1993.

-Philip Bourgois, In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio Cambridge 1995.

Susan Breownell, Training the Body for China: Sports in the Moral Order of the People=s Republic. Chicago 1996.

Dawn Chatty, Mobile Pastoralists: Development Planning and Social Change in Oman. Columbia 1996.

XV. Reflections on Reflexive Ethnography: