Department of History
The University of Chicago
Europe in the High Middle Ages
This course is the second in a two-quarter sequence intended to prepare students for in-depth study of the history of Europe in the Middle Ages. Its purpose is to familiarize students with the principal characters and events of western European civilization from the beginnings of the Gregorian Reform through the devastation of the Black Death. Its focus will be on close reading of important primary sources supplemented by intensive study of relevant scholarship. Historiographical themes will include the reform of the Church, the development of secular and ecclesiastical monarchies, the revival of towns, trade and scholarship, the Crusades, and the problem of heresy and persecution.
1. Reading and participation in class discussion. This is the primary requirement for success in this course and will constitute 40% of your final grade—one half of which 40% will be based on your active, verbal participation in class; and the other half of which will be based on the written comments that you will hand in on the day on which we discuss particular texts. You will be required to turn in 8 comments over the course of the quarter. Each comment should be typed and contain answers to the following two questions:
v What is the main historical problem addressed/raised/illuminated by the primary (*) text(s) for today? (In other words, what did you learn about from this text? What should be the main theme of our discussion for today?)
v What is the main interpretive problem raised by the primary (*) text(s) for today? (In other words, what difficulties did you have making sense of the text? What should be our main historiographical exercise for today?)
In addition, you will be asked at the end of each class to write a brief comment in answer to the following question:
v What was the main theme of class today?
2. Annotated bibliography. The purpose of this class being not only to introduce you to the materials from which scholars have constructed our understanding of Europe in the High Middle Ages, but also to prepare you for independent research in that period, it is important that you have some practice finding the appropriate scholarly literature from which to begin your research. You will therefore be required to prepare an annotated bibliography of 10 items (5 monographs or books and 5 articles) on a topic of your choosing, the only limitation being that it should be drawn from one of the topics touched on in our class discussions over the course of the quarter. In preparing this bibliography, you should begin with reference works such as Mary Beth Norton, ed., The American Historical Association’s Guide to Historical Literature (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995); Everett U. Crosby, C. Julian Bishko and Robert L. Kellogg, eds., Medieval Studies: A Bibliographic Guide (New York: Garland Publishing, 1983); and the International Medieval Bibliography (Minneapolis and Leeds, 1967- ). You may also use the bibliographies in Malcolm Barber, The Two Cities: Medieval Europe, 1050-1320; and Hans-Werner Goetz, Life in the Middle Ages from the Seventh to the Thirteenth Century. There are likewise good bibliographies available on-line at “ORB” (http://orb.rhodes.edu/index.html), although these tend to be more hit-and-miss at present (some topics very well covered, others less so). You should also consult appropriate reviews, for example in Speculum and the American Historical Review. Your annotation of each item should consist of a short description of the contents of the book or article along with an indication of why it would be useful to you in writing an essay about your topic. Each of these annotations should be no more than 150-200 words. N.B. One important requirement for this exercise is for you to be able to distinguish between scholarly works and works written primarily for lay consumption—i.e. between research and “non-fiction.” This annotated bibliography will count for 20% of your final grade and will be due in class on Tuesday, May 9.
3. Final paper. You will be required to write a final, formal paper of 10-12 pages (maximum 4500 words). This paper will count for 40% of your final grade and will be due on Thursday, June 8 at 5 p.m. in my office (HM-E 686). Format to be discussed in class on Tuesday, March 27.
Books Available for Purchase from the Seminary Co-op Bookstore
Patrick Geary, ed., Readings in Medieval History: Vol. II. The Later Middle Ages, 2nd ed. (Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press, 1998). [D113.R422 1998]
Malcolm Barber, The Two Cities: Medieval Europe 1050-1320 (London and New York: Routledge, 1992). [CB351.B350 1992]
Hans-Werner Goetz, Life in the Middle Ages from the Seventh to the Thirteenth Century, trans. Albert Wimmer, ed. Steven Rowan (Notre Dame and London: University of Notre Dame Press, 1993). [CB361.G62130 1993]
Pauline Matarasso, The Cistercian World: Monastic Writings of the Twelfth Century (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1993). [Not available from Regenstein]
Joinville and Villehardouin, Chronicles of the Crusades, trans. with an Introduction by M.R.B. Shaw (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1963). [D151.S53]
Books Available on Reserve in Regenstein Library
Julius Kirshner and Karl F. Morrison, eds., Readings in Western Civilization: 4. Medieval Europe (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986) = RWC 4 [CB245.U640 1986 v. 4]
Peter Damian, Letters, vol. 4, trans. Owen Blum (Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1989-). [BX4700.P77A40 1989]
Edward Peters, ed., The First Crusade: The Chronicle of Fulcher of Chartres and Other Source Materials (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1971). [D161.P48] [2nd ed. D161.1.F57 1998]
John F. Benton, Self and Society in Medieval France: The Memoirs of Abbot Guibert of Nogent (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1970; reprinted Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1984). [DC83.G833 1984] [or DC83.G9]
A.J. Minnis and A.B. Scott, eds., Medieval Literary Theory and Criticism, c. 1100-c. 1375: The Commentary Tradition (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988). [PN88.M450 1988]
Otto of Freising, The Deeds of Frederick Barbarossa, trans. Charles Christopher Mierow (New York: Columbia University Press, 1953; reprinted Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1994). [DD149.O85]
Georges Duby, Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West, trans. Cynthia Postan (Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1962). [HD1917.D8202]
Walter L. Wakefield and Austin P. Evans, eds. and trans., Heresies of the High Middle Ages (New York: Columbia University Press, 1969, 1991). [BT1315.2.W320 1991]
David Herlihy, ed., Medieval Culture and Society (New York: Harper Collins, 1968). [CB351.H54]
Rosemary Horrox, ed. and trans., The Black Death (Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, 1994). [Crerar RC178.A1B580 1994]
Assigned Readings for Discussion
Mar. 30 Lords, vassals and saints
*Charters of the Grossi family, in Geary, Readings, [306-9].
*Fulbert of Charters, “Letter to William of Aquitaine,” in Geary, Readings, .
*Hugh of Lusignan, “Agreement between Lord and Vassal,” in Geary, Readings, [367-72].
*Bernard of Angers, “Miracles of Saint Foy,” in Geary, Readings, [311-18].
Barber, Two Cities, 5-59.
Goetz, Life in the Middle Ages, 1-55.
Apr. 4 Reforming the priesthood
*Peter Damian, Letter 96 to pope Alexander II, Letter 112 to bishop Cunibert of Turin, and Letter 114 to the duchess Adelaid of Turin, in Blum, Letters, vol. 4, 51-67, 258-85, 294-305.
Barber, Two Cities, 85-97, 196-200.
Apr. 6 Soldiers of Christ
*Fulcher of Chartres, Chronicle, in Peters, The First Crusade, 23-90.
*Letters of the Crusaders, in Peters, The First Crusade, 221-33.
Barber, Two Cities, 119-40.
Goetz, Life in the Middle Ages, 160-96.
Apr. 11 Towns in revolt
*Guibert of Nogent, De vita sua, Book III, in Benton, Self and Society in Medieval France, 145-207.
*Galbert of Bruges, “The Murder of Charles the Good,” in Geary, Readings, [373-85].
*Customs of the Town of Saint-Omer, in RWC 4, 90-5.
Barber, Two Cities, 60-82.
Goetz, Life in the Middle Ages, 197-236.
Apr. 13 No Class
*Selections from Bernard of Clairvaux and others on the Cistercians, in The Cistercian World, 3-58, 285-92.
Barber, Two Cities, 141-55.
Goetz, Life in the Middle Ages, 56-106.
Apr. 20 Reading the Bible at Paris
*Hugh of St. Victor, Didascalicon, extracts from Books V and VI, in Minnis and Scott, Medieval Literary Theory, 71-86.
*Peter Abelard, Prologue to Sic et non, in Minnis and Scott, Medieval Literary Theory, 87-105.
*Peter Lombard, Prologue to a commentary on the Psalter, in Minnis and Scott, Medieval Literary Theory, 105-112.
Barber, Two Cities, 441-52.
Apr. 25 Frederick Barbarossa, Emperor of Germany
*Otto of Freising, The Deeds of Frederick Barbarossa, pp. 17-28, 112-69.
Barber, Two Cities, 97-105, 200-24.
*Documents nos. 25-34, 56-8, and 74-123, in Duby, Rural Economy and Country Life, pp. 387-91, 409-13, 428-78.
Goetz, Life in the Middle Ages, 107-59.
*Richard fitz Nigel, Dialogue of the Exchequer, in Geary, Readings, [730-9].
Barber, Two Cities, 305-40.
May 4 No Class
*Selections from Alan of Lille and others on the spread of heresy in Italy and southern France (1160-1216), in Wakefield and Evans, Heresies of the High Middle Ages, 159-73, 189-241.
Barber, Two Cities, 168-92.
*St. Francis, “Rule,” in Geary, Readings, [447-50].
*Thomas of Celano, “Life of Saint Francis,” in RWC 4, 289-304.
*“Canonization Process of St. Dominic,” in Geary, Readings, [455-66].
*Jordan of Saxony, “On the Beginnings of the Order of Preachers,” in RWC 4, 261-79.
*Thomas of Cantimpré, “Defense of the Mendicants,” in Geary, Readings, [467-9].
Barber, Two Cities, 155-67.
May 16 Louis IX of France, King and Crusader
*Joinville, “The Life of Saint Louis,” in Chronicles of the Crusades, 162-353.
*Enquźts of King Louis, in Geary, Readings, [672-82].
*Summa de legibus, in RWC 4, 68-76.
Barber, Two Cities, 271-98.
*Gregory IX, “Papal Regulations for the University of Paris (1231),” in RWC 4, 339-42.
*Conflict between town and gown at Paris (1269), in RWC 4, 342-3.
*Thomas Aquinas, On Christian Theology (selections), in RWC 4, 343-54.
*Bonaventure, Siger of Brabant and Thomas Aquinas on the eternality of the world, in Geary, Readings, [470-99].
*Orthodoxy enforced at Paris (1272), in RWC 4, 354-6.
Barber, Two Cities, 452-62.
May 23 Paradise and the Rose
*“Our Lady’s Tumbler,” in Herlihy, Medieval Culture, 292-302.
*Guillaume de Lorris and Jean de Meun, The Romance of the Rose (selections), in Herlihy, Medieval Culture, 234-54.
*Dante Alighieri, Divine Comedy (selections), in Herlihy, Medieval Culture, 314-41.
Barber, Two Cities, 463-88.
May 25 The Inquisitor at work
*Boniface VIII, Clericos laicos (1296) and Unam Sanctam (1302), in RWC 4, 380-2.
*Bernard Gui, “Manual of the Inquisitor,” in Wakefield and Evans, Heresies of the High Middle Ages, 373-445.
*Jacques Fournier, “Inquisition Records,” in Geary, Readings, [500-519].
Barber, Two Cities, 105-18, 223-4, 298-304, 421-40.
May 30 The Black Death
*Selections from Gabriele de’Mussis and others on the arrival of the plague in continental Europe, in Horrox, The Black Death, 14-61.
Barber, Two Cities, 489-508.
June 1 Conclusion and course evaluation