Rachel Fulton Brown

Department of History

The University of Chicago

 

THE PSALMS IN MEDIEVAL CHRISTIANITY

 

Autumn 2014

 

The Psalms were at the heart of medieval Christian life and thought.  Monks chanted them daily in the Divine Office, lay people recited them in the offices of the Virgin Mary and of the Dead, children learned them as the basis of their ABCs, exegetes meditated upon them in commentaries, artists illuminated them in manuscripts, and composers drew upon them for their chants.  More than any other book of the Bible, the Psalms provided the language and imagery for speaking about God and his Mother and their relationship to the human soul.  In the Psalms were read not only praise, prayer, and confession, but the whole matter of the incarnation, passion, resurrection, and ascension of the Word of God.  In this seminar, we will be exploring this intersection between psychology and theology through a variety of sources—commentaries, liturgies, illustrated psalters and books of hours—across a variety of settings from the cloister to the home.  We will also be considering the methodological challenges involved in studying the effect of the Psalms on the culture of medieval Europe.

 

BOOKS AVAILABLE FOR PURCHASE AT THE SEMINARY CO-OP BOOKSTORE

The Vulgate Bible. Volume III: The Poetical Books, Douay-Rheims Translation, ed. Swift Edgar with Angela M. Kinney, Dumbarton Oaks Medieval Library (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2011) [BS180 2010 v. 3]

Nancy Van Deusen, ed., The Place of the Psalms in the Intellectual Culture of the Middle Ages (Albany: State University of New York, 1999) [BS1430.5 .P57 1999]

Bruce K. Waltke and James M. Houston, with Erika Moore, The Psalms as Christian Worship: A Historical Commentary (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 2010) [BS1430.52 .W36 2010]

 

COURSE REQUIREMENTS

1.  Discussion: Each week, students will take turns presenting the main issues and sources addressed in the readings.  All students will be expected to participate in these discussions (30%).

2.  Assignments: There will be a series of short written assignments (2-3 pages each) over the course of the quarter intended to help formulate a research question for the final paper.  These will include bibliographies, short textual analyses, and other exercises (30%).

3.  Final paper dealing with some aspect of psalm study (12-15 pages, double-spaced, 11 or 12 point font): Potential methodologies and themes include textual criticism, exegesis, liturgy, music, book history, iconography, political theory, social history, education, theology, poetry, contemplation, and penance (40%).

 

READING AND DISCUSSION ASSIGNMENTS

 

October 2  The Psalms in the Temple

Sigmund Mowinckel, The Psalms in Israel's Worship, trans. D.R. Ap-Thomas, 2 vols. in 1 (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1962), 1:1-22, 106-92, 2:79-103, 202-206 [BS1430. M755 1962]

N. Wyatt, "The Liturgical Context of Psalm 19 and its Mythical and Ritual Origins," Ugarit Forschungen 27 (1995): 559-96 [Chalk]

Waltke and Houston, Psalms as Christian Worship, pp. 19-36, 80-114, 340-75 (Psalm 18 [19])

 

October 9 The Psalms in the Church

Maarten J.J. Menken, “The Psalms in Matthew’s Gospel,” in The Psalms in the New Testament, ed. Steve Moyise and Maarten J.J. Menken (London: T&T Clark, 2004), pp. 61-82 [BS2387. P73 2004]

Harold W. Attridge, “The Psalms in Hebrews,” in The Psalms in the New Testament, ed. Moyise and Menken pp. 197-212 [BS2387. P73 2004]

Margaret Barker, Temple Themes in Christian Worship (London: T&T Clark, 2007), pp. 1-44, 73-98, 221-38 [BV6 .B37 2007]

Waltke and Houston, Psalms as Christian Worship, pp. 484-518 (Psalm 109 [110])

 

October 16  The Psalms in the Desert

Douglas Burton-Christie, The Word in the Desert: Scripture and the Quest for Holiness in Early Christian Monasticism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), pp. 107-33 [BX2465.B870 1993]

Paul R. Kolbet, "Athanasius, the Psalms, and the Reformation of the Self," The Harvard Theological Review 99.1 (2006):85-101 [JSTOR]

John Cassian, Conferences, trans. Colm Luibheid (New York: Paulist Press, 1985), pp. 101-40 [BX2435.C31525130 1985]

Columba Stewart, Cassian the Monk (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), pp. 105-113 [BR65.C33 .S74 1998eb]

Gillian Clark, "Psallite Sapienter: Augustine on Psalmody," in Meditations of the Heart: Psalms in Early Christian Thought.  Essays in Honour of Andrew Louth, ed. Andreas Andreopoulos, Augustine Casiday, and Carol Harrison (Turnhout: Brepols, 2011), pp. 161-80 [BS 1430.52 M43 2011]

James W. McKinnon, "The Book of Psalms, Monasticism, and the Western Liturgy," in Van Deusen, ed., The Place of the Psalms, pp. 43-58

Waltke and Houston, Psalms as Christian Worship, pp. 182-209 (Psalm 3)

 

October 23  Commentary on the Psalms

Joseph Dyer, "The Psalms in Monastic Prayer," in Van Deusen, Place of the Psalms, pp. 59-89

Augustine, Expositions of the Psalms, trans. Maria Boulding, 6 vols. (New York: New City Press, 2000-2004), 1:76-84 (Psalm 3), 1:199-214 (Psalm 18 [19]); 5:261-84 (Psalm 109 [110]) [Chalk]

Cassiodorus, Explanation of the Psalms, trans. P.G. Walsh, 3 vols., Ancient Christian Writers 51-53 (New York: Paulist Press, 1990-1991), 1:23-44 (Preface), 1:68-73 (Psalm 3), 1:195-203 (Psalm 18 [19]), 3:116-24 (Psalm 109 [110]) [BR60.A62Q2 v.51-53]

Peter Lombard, "Commentary on the Psalter: Prologue," in  Medieval Literary Theory and Criticism c. 1100-c. 1375: The Commentary Tradition, ed. A.J. Minnis and A.B. Scott, with David Wallace, rev. ed. (Oxford: Clarendon, 1991), pp. 105-112 [PN88 .M45 1991]

Marcia Colish, "Psalterium Scholasticorum: Peter Lombard and the Emergence of Scholastic Psalms Exegesis," Speculum 67.3 (1992):531-48 [JSTOR]

Theresa Gross-Diaz, "From Lectio Divina to the Lecture Room: The Psalm Commentary of Gilbert of Poitiers," in Van Deusen, Place of the Psalms, pp. 91-104

Karl Morrison, “The Church as Play: Gerhoch of Reichersberg’s Call for Reform,” in Popes, Teachers, and Canon Law in the Middle Ages, ed. James Ross Sweeney and Stanley Chodorow (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1989), pp. 114-44 [BR253.P60 1989]

Waltke and Houston, Psalms as Christian Worship, pp. 37-79

 

October 30  The Divine Office

Rule of St. Benedict, cc. 8-20 [http://www.osb.org/rb/text/toc.html - toc]

Joseph Dyer, "The Singing of Psalms in the Early Medieval Office," Speculum 64.3 (1989):535-78 [JSTOR]

Katherine Allen Smith, War and the Making of Medieval Monastic Culture (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2011), pp. 9-38 [BX2440 .S65 2011]

Barbara Rosenwein, "Feudal War and Monastic Peace: Cluniac Liturgy as Ritual Aggression," Viator 2 (1971): 127-57 [E-resource]

Dominique Iogna-Prat, "The Dead in the Celestial Bookkeeping of the Cluniac Monks Around the Year 1000," in Debating the Middle Ages: Issues and Readings, ed. Lester Little and Barbara Rosenwein (Malden: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 340-62 [D117 .D43 1998]

Kathleen M. Openshaw, "Weapons in the Daily Battle: Images of the Conquest of Evil in the Early Medieval Psalter," The Art Bulletin 75.1 (1993): 17-38 [JSTOR]

Susan Boynton, "Prayer as Liturgical Performance in Eleventh- and Twelfth-Century Monastic Psalters," Speculum 82 (2007):896-931 [JSTOR]

Monika Otter, "Entrances and Exits: Performing the Psalms in Goscelin's Liber confortatorius," Speculum 83 (2008): 283-302 [JSTOR]

Rebecca A. Baltzer, "The Little Office of the Virgin and Mary's Role at Paris," in The Divine Office in the Latin Middle Ages: Methodology and Source Studies, Regional Developments, Hagiography, ed. Margot E. Fassler and Rebecca A. Baltzer (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), pp. 463-84 [ML3080 .D58 2000]

 

November 6 Psalters

Joseph Dyer, "Latin Psalters, Old Roman and Gregorian Chants," Kirchenmusikalisches Jahrbuch 68 (1986):11-30 [Chalk]

Henry Mayr-Harting, "Praying the Psalter in Carolingian Times: What Was Supposed to Be Going on in the Minds of Monks," in Prayer and Thought in Monastic Tradition: Essays in Honour of Benedicta Ward SLG, ed. Santha Bhattacharji, Rowan Williams, and Dominic Mattos (London: Bloomsbury, 2014), pp. 77-100 [Chalk]

Kathleen Corrigan, "Early Medieval Psalter Illustration in Byzantium and the West," in The Utrecht Psalter in Medieval Art: Picturing the Psalms of David, ed. Koert van der Horst, William Noel, and Wilhelmina C.M. Wüstefeld (Westrenen: Hes, 1996), pp. 85-103 [ND3357.U8U8 1996]

Celia Chazelle, "Archbishops Ebo and Hincmar of Reims and the Utrecht Psalter," Speculum 72.4 (1997): 1055-77 [JSTOR]

Mechthild Gretsch, "The Roman Psalter, its Old English Glosses and the English Benedictine Reform," The Liturgy of the Late Anglo-Saxon Church, ed. Helen Gittos and M. Bradford Bedingfield (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2005), pp. 13-28 [BX1977.G7 L58 2005]

George Brown, "The Psalms as the Foundation of Anglo-Saxon Learning," in Van Deusen, Place of the Psalms, pp. 1-24

The Eadwine Psalter: Text, Image, and Monastic Culture in Twelfth-Century Canterbury, ed. Margaret Gibson, T.A. Heslop, and Richard W. Pfaff (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1992), pp. 43-52, 123-55 [ND3357.C3E240 1992]

Stella Panayatova, “The Illustrated Psalter: Luxury and Practical Use,” in The Practice of the Bible in the Middle Ages: Production, Reception, and Performance in Western Christianity, ed. Susan Boynton and Diane J. Reilly (New York: Columbia University Press, 2011), pp. 247-71 [BS538.7 .P725 2011]

Mary Kay Duggan, "The Psalter on the Way to the Reformation: The Fifteenth-Century Printed Psalter in the North," in Van Deusen, Place of the Psalms, pp. 153-89

 

November 13  The Penitential Psalms

Jonthan Black, "Psalm Uses in Carolingian Prayerbooks: Alcuin and the Preface to De psalmorum usu," Mediaeval Studies 64 (2002):1-60 [D111.M5 c. 1 v. 64 2002]

________ "Psalm Uses in Carolingian Prayerbooks: Alcuin's Confessio peccatorum pura and the Seven Penitential Psalms (Use 1)," Mediaeval Studies 65 (2003):1-56. [D111.M5 c. 1 v. 65 2003]

Michael S. Driscoll, "The Seven Penitential Psalms: Their Designation and Usages from the Middle Ages Onwards," Ecclesia Orans 17 (2000): 153-201 [Chalk]

Annie Sutherland, "Performing the Penitential Psalms in the Middle Ages," in Aspects of the Performative in Medieval Culture, ed. Almut Suerbaum and Manuele Gragnolati (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2010), pp. 15-37 [PN88 .A77 2010eb]

Lynn Staley, "The Penitential Psalms: Conversion and the Limits of Lordship," Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 37.2 (2007):221-69 [E-resource]

Michael P. Kuczynski, "The Psalms and Social Action in Late Medieval England," in Van Deusen, Place of the Psalms, pp. 191-214

Clare Costley, "David, Bathsheba, and the Penitential Psalms," Renaissance Quarterly 57:4 (2004) 1235-1277 [JSTOR]

Waltke and Houston, Psalms as Christian Worship, pp. 446-83 (Psalm 51)

 

November 20 Singing with the Angels

David Hiley, Western Plainchant: A Handbook (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993), pp. 58-69 [ML3082.H540 1993]

Grover Zinn, "The Psalms at the Abbey of St. Victor: From the Novice's schola to the Heights of contemplatio," in Transforming Relations: Essays on Jews and Christians throughout history in honor of Michael A. Signer, ed. Franklin T. Harkins (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2010), pp. 75-100 [BM535 .T64 2010]

Francis of Assisi, "Office of the Passion," in Francis of Assisi: Early Documents, Vol. 1: The Saint, ed. Regis J. Armstrong, J.A.Wayne Hellman, and William J. Short (New York: New City Press, 1999), pp. 139-57 [BX4700.F6F722 1999 v. 1]

Laurent Gallant, "Office of the Passion," in The Writings of Francis of Assisi: Letters and Prayers, ed. Michael W. Blastic, Jay M. Hammond, and J.A. Wayne Hellman, Studies in Early Franciscan Sources 1 (St. Bonaventure, NY: Franciscan Institute Publications, 2011), pp. 253-79 [BX2179.F643 W75 2011]

Bruce Holsinger, Music, Body, and Desire in Medieval Culture: Hildegard of Bingen to Chaucer (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001), pp. 191-258 [ML3845 .H64 2001]

Anne Bagnall Yardley, Performing Piety: Musical Culture in Medieval English Nunneries (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006), pp. 95-111, 273-77 [ML3031.2 .Y37 2006]

Rachel Fulton Brown, "My Psalter, My Self; or How to Get a Grip on the Office According to Jan Mombaer (d.c. 1501): An Exercise in Training the Attention for Prayer," Spiritus: A Journal of Christian Spirituality 12.1 (2012): 75-105 [E-resource]

Margot Fassler, "Psalms and Prayers in Daily Devotion: A Fifteenth-Century Devotional Anthology from the Diocese of Rheims: Beinecke 757," in Worship in Medieval and Early Modern Europe: Change and Continuity in Religious Practice, ed. Karin Maag and John D. Witvliet (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2004), pp. 15-40 [BV8.W67 2004]

 

November 27 THANKSGIVING

 

December 4  Books of Hours [meet in Special Collections]

Adelaide Bennett, "The Transformation of the Gothic Psalter in Thirteenth-Century France," in The Illuminated Psalter: Studies in the Content, Purpose, and Placement of its Images, ed. F.O. Büttner (Turnhout: Brepols, 2004), pp. 211-221 [ND3357.A1 I45 2004]

Claire Donavon, The De Brailes Hours: Shaping the Book of Hours in Thirteenth-Century Oxford (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1991), pp. 42-65 (Matins and Lauds) [ND3363.D42D66 1991]

Judith Oliver, "Te matrem laudamus: The Many Roles of Mary in a LiŹge Psalter-Hours," in The Cambridge Illuminations: The Conference Papers, ed. Stella Panayotova (London: Harvey Miller, 2007), pp. 159-72 [ND2920 .C36 2007]

Roger S. Wieck, Painted Prayers: The Book of Hours in Medieval and Renaissance Art (New York: George Braziller, 1997), pp. 51-78 [ND3363.A1 W54 1997]

James W. McKinnon, "The Fifteen Temple Steps and the Gradual Psalms," in The Temple, Church Fathers, and Early Western Chant (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1998), Essay XVI: 29-49 [ML3003.M35 1998]

MS in Special Collections: 26, 184, 343, 344, 345, 346, 347, 348, 349, 464

 

 

WRITING ASSIGNMENTS

 

1.  Write a paragraph or two on your exegetical/interpretive position with respect to the psalms.  Why are you interested in studying the psalms?  This is an exercise to help you become aware of the assumptions that you bring to your reading of the texts.  Due October 9.

 

2. Compare five different translations of one psalm (e.g. Septuagint, Hebrew Bible, Vulgate, King James Version, Revised Standard Version).  Note significant differences between the translations and how they affect the meaning of the psalm. This is an exercise to help make you aware of the way in which theology affects translation.  Due October 16.

 

3. Write a commentary on one psalm as you read it.  This is an exercise to help make you aware of your interpretive assumptions and goals.  Use this exercise to help raise questions about what kinds of tools you need in order to read the psalms.  Due October 23.

 

4. Compare and contrast three different commentaries on one psalm.  Note significant differences in the way in which the commentators approach the psalm and think about the assumptions they bring to their commentary.  Use Waltke and Houston as a model and to help identify commentators.  Due October 30.

 

5.  Compose an office for Matins and explain your choice of psalms.  Think about the meaning of the office, whether it is for a feast or simply one day in the cycle of regular prayers.  You may use models from the medieval liturgy.  Due November 6.

 

6.  Describe a psalter manuscript.  Think about the problems of interpretation that it raises, including its layout, contents, script, languages, and images.  Due November 13.

 

7.  Bibliography for final paper.  You should include both primary sources (e.g. commentaries, manuscripts, liturgical offices, and other contemporary sources) and scholarship.  Due November 20.

 

8.  Review and critique one of the articles or books that you have read for the quarter, based on what you have learned from your exercises about how to study the psalms.  Use this exercise to reflect on the way in which your assumptions about what it means to study the psalms have been affected by the work that you have done for the course.  Due December 4.

 

RESOURCES

 

Library Guides < http://guides.lib.uchicago.edu/subjectguides>

 

Š               Medieval & Byzantine Studies

o        International Medieval Bibliography

o        Byzantinische Bibliographie = Byzantine Bibliography

o        The Medieval Review <https://scholarworks.iu.edu/dspace/handle/2022/3631>

o        Library of Latin Texts

o        Patrologia Latina Database

o        In Principio: Incipit Index of Latin Texts

o        Analecta hymnica medii aevi

Š               Religion

o        ATLA Religion Database

o        Christian Classics Ethereal Library <http://www.ccel.org>

o        Oxford Handbooks in Religion

Š               Music

o        CANTUS: A Database for Latin Ecclesiastical Chant <http://cantusdatabase.org>

 

Digital manuscripts

 

Š               British Library Digitised Manuscripts < http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/>

Š               The James Catalogue of Western Manuscripts, Trinity College, Cambridge <http://sites.trin.cam.ac.uk/james/>

Š               Bodleian Library, University of Oxford <http://bodley30.bodley.ox.ac.uk:8180/luna/servlet/ODLodl~1~1>

Š               Bayerische Staatsbibliothek < https://www.bsb-muenchen.de/en/about-us/departments/department-of-manuscripts-and-early-printed-books/manuscript-cataloguing-centre/digital-collections/>

Š               Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana < http://www.mss.vatlib.it/gui/scan/link.jsp>

Š               DMMapp  Digitized Medieval Manuscripts App <http://digitizedmedievalmanuscripts.org>

Š               Catalogue of Digitized Medieval Manuscripts, UCLA <http://manuscripts.cmrs.ucla.edu/index.php>

Š               BVMM BibliothŹque virtuelle des manuscrits médiévaux <http://bvmm.irht.cnrs.fr>

Š               HMML Hill Museum & Manuscript Library <http://www.hmml.org>

 

Reference

 

Victor Leroquais, Les psautiers: Manuscrits latins des bibliothŹques publiques de France, 2 vols. (MČcon: Protat frŹres, 1940-1941) [Regenstein, Room 470, Classics Reading Room f Z7838.L7L614]

Pierre Salmon, Les manuscrits liturgiques latins de la BibliothŹque vaticane, 5 vols., Studi e testi 251, 253, 260, 267, 270 (Cittą del Vaticano: Bibliotheca apostolica vaticana, 1968-1972) [Z7838.L7S2]

 

Friedrich Stegmüller, Repertorium Biblicum Medii Aevi, 11 vols. (Madrid: 1940-1980) [BS444.A1S78]

 

René-Jean Hesbert, Corpus antiphonalium officii, 6 vols., Rerum ecclesiasticorum documenta, Series maior, Fontes 7 (Rome: Herder, 1963-1979) [M2.C81]

The Psalter, or, Seven ordinary hours of prayer, according to the use of the illustrious & excellent church of Sarum..., ed. John David Chambers (London: Joseph Masters, 1852) [Hathi Trust]

The Monastic Breviary of Hyde Abbey, Winchester: MSS Rawlinson liturg. e. 1 and and Gough liturg. 8 in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, ed. J.B.L. Tolhurst, 6 vols., Henry Bradshaw Society v. 69-71, 76, 78, 80 (London: Harrison, 1932-1942) [BV170.H5 v.69-71, 76, 78, 80]

Breviarium romanum: Editio princeps (1568), ed. Manlio Sodi and Achille Maria Triacca, Monumenta liturgica Concilii Tridentini 3 (Cittą del Vaticano: Libreria editrice vaticana, 1999) [Regenstein 3rd Floor Reference, BX2000.A2 1568b]

The Roman Breviary. Reformed by order of the holy oecumenical council of Trent, published by order of Pope St. Pius V, and revised by Clement VIII, Urban VIII and Leo XIII. Together with the Offices since granted and the martyrology, trans. John, Marquess of Bute (Edinburgh and London: Blackwood, 1908) [Hathi Trust]

The Hours of the Divine Office in English and Latin: A bilingual edition of the Roman Breviary text, together with introductory notes and rubrics in English only, 3 vols. (Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press, 1963-1964) [BX2000.A2 1963]

John Harper, The Forms and Orders of Western Liturgy from the Tenth to the Eighteenth Century: A Historical Introduction and Guide for Students and Musicians (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991) [Regenstein 3rd Floor Reference, BV186.5.H370 1991]

 

Biblia sacra iuxta Vulgatam versionem, ed. Robert Weber et al., 5th ed. (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2007) [BS75 2007]

A New English Translation of the Septuagint and the other Greek translations traditionally included under that title, eds. Albert Pietersma and Benjamin G. Wright (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007) [BS742 .P5413 2007eb]

JPS Hebrew-English Tanakh: The Traditional Hebrew Text and the New JPS Translation, 2nd ed. (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1999) [BS895.J4 1999]

King Alfred's Old English Prose Translation of the First Fifty Psalms, ed. P.P. O'Neill (Cambridge, MA: Medieval Academy of America, 2001) [PR1557.A16 2001]

The Books of Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Solomon According to the Wycliffite Version made by Nicholas de Hereford about AD 1381 and revised by John Purvey about AD 1388, ed. Josiah Forshall and Frederic Madden (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1881) [Hathi Trust]

Steven DeRose, "List of English Bible Versions, Translations, and Paraphrases" <http://www.derose.net/steve/Bible/EnglishBibleTranslations.html>

 

Commentaries on the Psalms available in English

 

John Chrysostom, Commentary on the Psalms, trans. Robert Charles Hill, 2 vols.  (Brookline, MA: Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 1998) [BS1429.J63 1998]

Theodore of Mopsuestia, Commentary on Psalms 1-81, trans. Robert Charles Hill, Writings from the Greco-Roman World 5 (Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2006) [BS1430.53.T4813 2006]

Augustine of Hippo, Expositions of the Psalms, trans. Maria Boulding, 6 vols., The Works of Saint Augustine: A Translation for the 21st Century, Part III: Homilies, ed. John E. Rotelle (New York: New City Press, 2000-2004) [BR65.A5E530 1990]

Cassiodorus, Explanation of the Psalms, trans. P.G. Walsh, 3 vols., Ancient Christian Writers 51-53 (New York: Paulist Press, 1990-1991) [BR60.A62Q2 v. 51-53]

Martin Luther, Luther's Works: The American Edition, ed. Hilton C. Oswald, vols. 10-14 (St. Louis: Concordia, 1955- ) [BR330.E5 1955]

John Calvin, Commentary on the Book of Psalms, trans. James Anderson, Calvin Translation Society Publications 6 (Edinburgh: 1845-1849) [Hathi Trust]

George Horne, A Commentary on the Book of Psalms, The Sacred Classics or Cabinet Library of Divinity 28 (London: J. Hatchard, 1836) [Hathi Trust]

Charles Augustus and Emilie Grace Briggs, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Psalms, International Critical Commentary on the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments 16-17 (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1906-1907) [Hathi Trust]

Mitchell Dahood, Psalms, 3 vols., Anchor Bible 16, 17, 17A (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1966-1970) [BS195.A1 1964 v.16, 17, 17A]

 

 

Table of Psalm Numbering

 

Septuagint/Vulgate

Hebrew/Protestant

1-8

1-8

9

9-10

10-112

11-113

113

114-115

114

116:1-9

115

116:10-19

116-145

117-146

146

147:1-11

147

147:12-29

148-150

148-150

151

-

 

 

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