# kobelePapers.bib

@article{Kobele16,
author = {Kobele, Gregory M.},
title = {Actual Language Use and Competence Grammars},
journal = {Theoretical Linguistics},
year = {2016},
volume = {42},
number = {3-4},
pages = {277-290},
pdf = {files/Kobele16UseAndCompetence.pdf},
doi = {10.1515/tl-2016-0012},
abstract = {This is a commentary on an article by Ruth Kempson et
al.~motivating dynamic syntax.  I clarify their
position against competence/performance and other
distinctions, and argue that 1. incremental
competence' grammars can account for split
utterances in dialogue in exactly the way proposed
by Kempson et al.}
}

@article{KobeleMerchant16,
author = {Kobele, Gregory M. and Jason Merchant},
title = {The Dynamics of Elllipsis},
journal = {Theoretical Linguistics},
year = {2016},
volume = {42},
number = {3-4},
pages = {291-296},
pdf = {files/KobeleMerchant16DynamicsEllipsis.pdf},
doi = {10.1515/tl-2016-0013},
abstract = {This is a commentary on an article by Ruth Kempson et
al.~motivating dynamic syntax.  We claim that the
Dynamic Syntax approach to ellipsis is an instance
of one which is common to many frameworks.  We
describe Kobele's (2015) account (which is in the
same vein), and suggest that mismatches in ellipsis
will prove difficult for the DS variant.}
}

@article{ClarkEtAl15,
author = {Alexander Clark and Makoto Kanazawa and Gregory M.~Kobele and Ryu Yoshinaka},
title = {Distributional Learning of Some Nonlinear Tree Grammars},
journal = {Fundamenta Informaticae},
year = {2016},
volume = {146},
number = {4},
pages = {339--377},
doi = {10.3233/FI-2016-1391},
pdf = {http://www.nii.ac.jp/TechReports/public_html/15-004E.pdf},
abstract = {A key component of Clark and Yoshinaka's distributional
learning algorithms is the extraction of
substructures and contexts contained in the input
data. This problem often becomes intractable with
nonlinear grammar formalisms due to the fact that
more than polynomially many substructures and/or
contexts may be contained in each object. Previous
works on distributional learning of nonlinear
grammars avoided this difficulty by restricting the
substructures or contexts that are made available to
the learner. In this paper, we identify two classes
of nonlinear tree grammars for which the extraction
of substructures and contexts can be performed in
polynomial time, and which, consequently, admit
successful distributional learning in its
unmodified, original form.}
}

@article{Kobele15LFCopy,
author = {Gregory M.~Kobele},
title = {{LF}-copying without {LF}},
journal = {Lingua},
year = 2015,
volume = {166, part B},
pages = {236--259},
doi = {10.1016/j.lingua.2014.08.006},
pdf = {files/Kobele14LFCopy.pdf},
abstract = {A copying approach to ellipsis is presented, whereby the
locus of copying is not a level of derived syntactic
structure (LF), but rather the derivation
itself. The ban on preposition stranding in
sprouting follows without further stipulation, and
other, seemingly structure sensitive, empirical
including the preposition stranding generalization,
follow naturally as well. Destructive operations
which repair' non-identical antecedents are recast
in terms of exact identity of derivations with
parameters. In the context of a compositional
semantic interpretation scheme, the derivational
copying approach to ellipsis presented here is
revealed to be a particular instance of a proform
theory, thus showing that the distinctions between,
and arguments about, syntactic and semantic theories
of ellipsis need to be revisited.}
}

@article{KobeleSalvati14IOandOI,
author = {Gregory M.~Kobele and Sylvain Salvati},
title = {The {IO} and {OI} hierarchies, revisited},
journal = {Information and Computation},
year = 2015,
volume = 243,
pages = {205-221},
doi = {10.1016/j.ic.2014.12.015},
pdf = {files/KobeleSalvati14IOandOI.pdf},
abstract = {We study languages of $\lambda$-terms generated by IO
and OI unsafe grammars. These languages can be used
to model meaning representations in the formal
semantics of natural languages following the
tradition of Montague. Using techniques pertaining
to the denotational semantics of the simply typed
$\lambda$-calculus, we show that the emptiness and
membership problems for both types of grammars are
decidable. In the course of the proof of the
decidability results for OI, we identify a decidable
variant of the $\lambda$-definability problem, and
prove a stronger form of Statman's finite
completeness Theorem.}
}

@incollection{CaseEtAl14Sarah,
author = {John Case and Jeffrey Heinz and Gregory M.~Kobele},
title = {Interpreted Learning: A framework for investigating the contribution of various information sources to the learning problem},
booktitle = {Connectedness: Papers by and for {S}arah {V}an{W}agenen},
publisher = {UCLA},
year = 2014,
editor = {Carson T.~Sch\"utze and Linnaea Stockall},
volume = 18,
series = {UCLA Working Papers in Linguistics},
pages = {90-101},
url = {http://www.linguistics.ucla.edu/faciliti/wpl/issues/wpl18/wpl18.html},
pdf = {files/CaseEtAl14Sarah.pdf},
the underlying grammar than is typically encoded in the orthographic string.
While multiple information sources such as prosody, and semantics can be
encoded as a single object, allowing the results of typical learning frameworks
to apply, this coding obscures the question of exactly how the learner
by these multiple different perspectives. Here we tease apart the contribution
of different information sources to the learning problem by generalizing
Gold's learning paradigm. The main result is a proof that multiple sources
of information can interact synergistically to facilitate learning of the target
underlying grammar.}
}

@article{Kobele14Boojum,
author = {Kobele, Gregory M.},
title = {Meeting the Boojum},
journal = {Theoretical Linguistics},
year = {2014},
volume = {40},
number = {1-2},
pages = {165-173},
pdf = {files/Kobele14Boojum.pdf},
doi = {10.1515/tl-2014-0007},
abstract = {This is a commentary on an article by M\"uller and
Wechsler comparing lexical and phrasal approaches to
argument structure.  I claim that the basic
distinction they are making between lexical and
phrasal approaches is not well defined, that their
arguments are circular, and that their complexity
metric is unmotivated.}
}

@article{KanazawaEtAl14,
author = {Makoto Kanazawa and Gregory M.~Kobele and Jens Michaelis and Sylvain Salvati and Ryo Yoshinaka},
title = {The failure of the strong pumping lemma for multiple context-free languages},
journal = {Theory of Computing Systems},
year = 2014,
volume = {55},
number = {1},
pages = {250--278},
pdf = {files/KanazawaEtAl14.pdf},
doi = {10.1007/s00224-014-9534-z},
abstract = {Seki et al. (On multiple context-free grammars'',
Theoretical Computer Science 88 (1991)) showed that
every m-multiple context-free language L is weakly
2m-iterative. Whether every m-multiple context-free
language L is 2m-iterative has been open. We show
that there is a 3-multiple context-free language
that is not k-iterative for any k.}
}

@incollection{KobeleSalvati13,
year = 2013,
booktitle = {Automata, Languages, and Programming},
volume = 7966,
series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
editor = {Fomin, Fedor V. and Freivalds, Rusins and Kwiatkowska, Marta and Peleg, David},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-39212-2_31},
url = {http://hal.inria.fr/hal-00818069},
title = {The {IO} and {OI} Hierarchies Revisited},
publisher = {Springer},
author = {Kobele, Gregory M. and Salvati, Sylvain},
pages = {336-348},
pdf = {files/KobeleSalvati13ICALP.pdf},
abstract = {We study languages of $\lambda$-terms generated by IO and OI
unsafe grammars. These languages can be used to
model meaning representations in the formal
semantics of natural languages following the
pertaining to the denotational semantics of the
simply typed $\lambda$-calculus, we show that the emptiness
and membership problems for both types of grammars
are decidable. In the course of the proof of the
decidability results for OI, we identify a decidable
variant of the $\lambda$-definability problem, and prove a
stronger form of Statman's finite completeness
Theorem.}
}

@incollection{KobeleEtAl13,
author = {Gregory M.~Kobele and Sabrina Gerth and John T.~Hale},
title = {Memory Resource Allocation in Top-Down Minimalist Parsing},
booktitle = {FG 2012/2013},
pages = {32--51},
editor = {Glyn Morrill and Mark-Jan Nederhof},
publisher = {Springer},
year = 2013,
volume = 8036,
series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
pdf = {files/KobeleEtAl12.pdf},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-39998-5_3},
abstract = {This paper provides a linking theory between the
minimalist grammar formalism and off-line
behavioural data. We examine the transient stack
states of a top-down parser for Minimalist Grammars
as it analyzes embedded sentences in English, Dutch
and German. We find that the number of time steps
that a derivation tree node persist on the parser's
stack derives the observed contrasts in English
center embedding, and the difference between German
and Dutch embedding.  This particular stack
occupancy measure formalizes the leading idea of
memory burden'' in a way that links predictive,
incremental parsing to specific syntactic analyses.}
}

@inproceedings{Kobele12Idioms,
author = {Kobele, Gregory M.},
title = {Idioms and extended transducers},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Tree Adjoining Grammars and Related Formalisms (TAG+11)},
month = {September},
year = {2012},
pages = {153--161},
pdf = {files/Kobele12Idioms.pdf},
http = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology-new/W/W12/W12-4618},
abstract = {There is a tension between the idea that idioms can be
both listed in the lexicon, and the idea that they
are themselves composed of the lexical items which
seem to inhabit them in the standard way. In other
words, in order to maintain the insight that idioms
actually contain the words they look like they
contain, we need to derive them syntactically from
these words. However, the entity that should be
assigned a special meaning is then a derivation,
which is not the kind of object that can occur in a
lexicon (which is, by definition, the atoms of which
derivations are built), and thus not the kind of
thing that we are able to assign meanings directly
to. Here I show how to resolve this tension in an
elegant way, one which bears striking similarities
to those proposed by psychologists and
psycholinguists working on idioms.}
}

@inproceedings{KobeleMichaelis12TAG,
author = {Kobele, Gregory M.  and  Micha\/elis, Jens},
title = {On the Form-Meaning Relations Definable by {CoTAGs}},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Tree Adjoining Grammars and Related Formalisms (TAG+11)},
month = {September},
year = {2012},
pages = {207--213},
pdf = {files/KobeleMichaelis12TAG.pdf},
http = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology-new/W/W12/W12-4624},
abstract = { Barker notes that from a purely syntactic perspective,
in the context of simple (i.e. not multicomponent)
TAGs, adding cosubstitution affects neither weak nor
strong generative capacity (in the sense of derived
string and tree languages).  Clearly, however,
something is different: after adding the operation
of cosubstitution, derivational order matters in the
sense that one derived syntactic representation can
potentially be associated with more than one
simultaneously derived semantic representation. As
Barker points out, the introduction of the
cosubstitution operator allows for a straightforward
adaption of the notion of derivation tree such that
two derivation trees can be different depending on
when a cosubstitution step takes place.  We
demonstrate that the form-meaning mappings definable
by coTAGs go beyond those of simple'' STAGs
(Shieber, 1994; Shieber, 2006).  In particular, the
set of meanings, the second projection of the
synchronously derived syntactic and semantic
representations, can be -- up to a homomorphism
abstracting away from instances of $\lambda$ and
variables -- the non-tree adjoining language MIX(k),
for any $k \ge 3$.}
}

@inproceedings{Kobele12HPSG,
author = {Gregory M.~Kobele},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar, Chungnam National University Daejeon},
editor = {Stefan M{\"u}ller},
pages = {307--324},
publisher = {CSLI Publications},
title = {Eliding the Derivation: A Minimalist Formalization of Ellipsis},
year = 2012,
pdf = {files/Kobele12HPSG.pdf},
http = {http://cslipublications.stanford.edu/HPSG/2012/},
abstract = {In this paper I use the formal framework of
minimalist grammars to implement a version of the
traditional approach to ellipsis as deletion under
syntactic (derivational) identity,' which, in
conjunction with canonical analyses of voice
phenomena, immediately allows for voice mismatches
in verb phrase ellipsis, but not in sluicing. This
approach to ellipsis is naturally implemented in a
parser by means of threading a state encoding a set
of possible antecedent derivation contexts through
the derivation tree. Similarities between ellipsis
and pronominal resolution are easily stated in these
terms.  In the context of this implementation, two
approaches to ellipsis in the transformational
community are naturally seen as equivalent
descriptions at different levels: the LF-copying
approach to ellipsis resolution is best seen as a
description of the parser, whereas the phonological
deletion approach a description of the underlying
relation between form and meaning}
}

@incollection{Kobele12DGfS,
author = {Gregory M.~Kobele},
title = {Deriving Reconstruction Asymmetries},
booktitle = {Local Modeling of Non-Local Dependencies in Syntax},
pages = {477--500},
publisher = {de Gruyter},
year = 2012,
editor = {Artemis Alexiadou and Tibor Kiss and Gereon M\"uller},
volume = 547,
series = {Linguistische Arbeiten},
pdf = {files/Kobele08DGfS.pdf},
http = {http://www.degruyter.com/view/product/184955},
abstract = {There appears to be a systematic difference in the
reconstructability of noun phrases and
predicates. In this paper I show that reconstructing
the A/A-bar distinction in terms of slash-feature
percolation and movement allows for a simple
derivational formulation of the principles of
binding and scope which derives a generalization
very much along the lines of the one presented by
Huang (1993).}
}

@incollection{KobeleZimmermann12,
author = {Gregory M.~Kobele and Malte Zimmermann},
title = {Quantification in German},
booktitle = {Handbook of Quantifiers in Natural Language},
pages = {227--283},
publisher = {Springer},
year = 2012,
editor = {Edward L.~Keenan and Denis Paperno},
volume = 90,
series = {Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy},
chapter = 5,
doi = {10.1007/978-94-007-2681-9_5},
pdf = {files/KobeleZimmermann12.pdf},
abstract = {This paper is a systematic survey of the linguistic
expression of quantification in German.}
}

@inproceedings{Kobele12Montague,
author = {Gregory M.~Kobele},
title = {Importing Montagovian Dynamics into Minimalism},
booktitle = {Logical Aspects of Computational Linguistics},
year = {2012},
publisher = {Springer},
editor = {Denis B\'echet and Alexandre Dikovsky},
volume = 7351,
series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
pages = {103--118},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-31262-5_7},
pdf = {files/Kobele12MontagovianDynamics.pdf},
abstract = {Minimalist analyses typically treat quantifier scope
interactions as being due to movement, thereby
bringing constraints thereupon into the purview of
the grammar. Here we adapt De Groote's
continuation-based presentation of dynamic semantics
to minimalist grammars.  This allows for a simple
and simply typed compositional interpretation scheme
for minimalism}
}

@inproceedings{KobeleMichaelis12,
author = {Gregory M.~Kobele and Jens Micha\/elis},
title = {{CoTAGs} and {ACGs}},
booktitle = {Logical Aspects of Computational Linguistics},
year = {2012},
publisher = {Springer},
editor = {Denis B\'echet and Alexandre Dikovsky},
volume = 7351,
series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
pages = {119--134},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-31262-5_8},
pdf = {files/KobeleMichaelis12LACL.pdf},
abstract = {Our main concern is to provide a complete picture of how
coTAGs, as a particular variant within the general
framework of tree adjoining grammars (TAGs), can be
captured under the notion of abstract categorial
grammars (ACGs). coTAGs have been introduced by
Barker as an alternative conceptualization'' in
order to cope with the tension between the
TAG-mantra of the locality of syntactic
dependencies'' and the seeming non-locality of
quantifier scope. We show how our formalization of
Barker's proposal leads to a class of higher order
ACGs.  By taking this particular perspective,
Barker's proposal turns out as a straightforward
extension of the proposal of Pogodalla, where the
former in addition to simple'' inverse scope
phenomena also captures inverse linking and
}

@article{Kobele12ComputationEllipsis,
author = {Gregory M.~Kobele},
title = {Ellipsis: Computation of},
journal = {WIREs Cognitive Science},
year = 2012,
volume = {3},
number = {3},
pages = {411--418},
pdf = {files/Kobele12ComputationEllipsis.pdf},
doi = {10.1002/wcs.1168},
abstract = {A computational account of ellipsis should specify not
only how the meaning of an elliptical sentence is
computed in context, but also a description of what
is being computed. Many proposals can be divided
into two groups, as per whether they compute the
meaning of an elliptical sentence based on the
semantic or the syntactic parts of its context. A
unifying theme of these proposals is that they are
all based on the idea that the meaning of an
elliptical sentence is determinable based on a
structured representation which is
transformationally related to its surface syntactic
structure.}
}

@incollection{KobeleMichaelis11,
author = {Gregory M.~Kobele and Jens~Micha\/elis},
title = {Disentangling Notions of Specifier Impenetrability: Late Adjunction, Islands, and Expressive Power},
editor = {Makoto Kanazawa and Andr\'as Kornai and Marcus Kracht and Hiroyuki Seki},
booktitle = {The Mathematics of Language},
publisher = {Springer},
year = 2011,
volume = 6878,
series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
pages = {126--142},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-23211-4},
pdf = {files/KobeleMichaelis11.pdf},
abstract = {In this paper we investigate the weak generative
capacity of minimalist grammars with late
adjunction. We show that by viewing the Specifier
Island Condition as the union of three separate
constraints, we obtain a more nuanced perspective on
previous results on constraint interaction in
minimalist grammars, as well as the beginning of a
map of the interaction between late adjunction and
movement constraints. Our main result is that
minimalist grammars with the SpIC on movement
generated specifiers only and with the Shortest Move
Constraint, in conjunction with late adjunction, can
define languages whose intersection with an
appropriate regular language is not semilinear.}
}

@article{KimEtAl11,
author = {Christina S.~Kim and Gregory M.~Kobele
and Jeffery T.~Runner and John T.~Hale},
title = {The acceptability cline in {VP} ellipsis},
journal = {Syntax},
pages = {318--354},
volume = 14,
number = 4,
year = {2011},
doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9612.2011.00160.x},
pdf = {files/KimEtAl11.pdf},
abstract = {This paper lays the foundations for a processing model
of relative acceptability levels in verb phrase
ellipsis (VPE). In the proposed model, mismatching
VPE examples are grammatical but less acceptable
because they violate heuristic parsing
strategies. This analysis is presented in a
Minimalist Grammar formalism that is compatible with
standard parsing techniques.  The overall proposal
with a psycholinguistic linking hypothesis. These
parts work together with the syntactic analysis to
derive novel predictions that are confirmed in a
controlled experiment.}
}

@inproceedings{Kobele11,
author = {Gregory M.~Kobele},
title = {Minimalist Tree Languages are Closed under Intersection with Recognizable Tree Languages},
year = {2011},
booktitle = {LACL 2011},
pages = {129--144},
editor = {Sylvain Pogodalla and Jean-Philippe Prost},
volume = {6736},
publisher = {Springer},
series = {Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence},
doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-22221-4},
pdf = {files/Kobele11LACL.pdf},
abstract = {Minimalist grammars are a mildly context-sensitive
grammar framework within which analyses in
mainstream chomskyian syntax can be faithfully
represented. Here it is shown that both the
derivation tree languages and derived tree languages
of minimalist grammars are closed under intersection
with regular tree languages. This allows us to
conclude that taking into account the possibility of
semantic crashes' in the standard approach to
interpreting minimalist structures does not alter
the strong generative capacity of the formalism. In
complexity filters is easily shown using a similar
proof method to not change the class of derived tree
languages.}
}

@incollection{Kobele10AAbar,
author = {Gregory M.~Kobele},
title = {A Formal Foundation for {A} and {A}-bar Movement in the Minimalist Program},
editor = {Christian Ebert and Gerhard J\"ager and Jens Michaelis},
booktitle = {MOL 10/11},
publisher = {Springer},
year = 2010,
volume = 6149,
series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
pages = {145--159},
doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-14322-9},
pdf = {files/Kobele10AAbar.pdf},
abstract = {It seems a fact that movement dependencies come in two
flavours: A'' and A-bar''. Over the years, a number
of apparently independent properties have been shown
to cluster together around this
distinction. However, the basic structural property
relating these two kinds of movement, the ban on
improper movement (once you go bar, you never go
back'), has never been given a satisfactory
explanation.  Here, I propose a timing-based account
of the A/A-bar distinction, which derives the ban on
improper movement, and allows for a simple and
elegant account of some of their differences. In
this account, A'' dependencies are those which are
entered into before an expression is first merged
into a structure, and A-bar'' dependencies are those
an expression enters into after having been
merged. The resulting system is mildly
context-sensitive, providing therefore a restrictive
account of possible human grammars, while remaining
expressive enough to be able to describe the kinds
of dependencies which are thought to be manifest.}
}

@incollection{Kobele10RemnantMvt,
author = {Gregory M.~Kobele},
title = {Without Remnant Movement, {MG}s are Context-Free},
booktitle = {MOL 10/11},
editor = {Christian Ebert and Gerhard J\"ager and Jens Michaelis},
publisher = {Springer},
year = 2010,
volume = 6149,
series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
pages = {160--173},
doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-14322-9},
pdf = {files/Kobele10RemnantMvt.pdf},
abstract = {Minimalist grammars offer a formal perspective on a
popular linguistic theory, and are comparable in
weak generative capacity to other mildly context
sensitive formalism. Minimalist grammars allow for
the straightforward definition of so-called remnant
movement constructions, which have found use in many
linguistic analyses. It has been conjectured that
the ability to generate this kind of configuration
is crucial to the super-context-free expressivity of
minimalist grammars. This conjecture is here
proven.}
}

@article{Kobele10InverseLinking,
author = {Gregory M.~Kobele},
title = {Inverse Linking via Function Composition},
journal = {Natural Language Semantics},
year = 2010,
volume = 18,
number = 2,
pages = {183--196},
doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11050-009-9053-7},
abstract = {The phenomenon of Inverse Linking has proven challenging
for theories of the syntax-semantics interface; a
noun phrase within another behaves with respect to
binding as though it were structurally independent.
In this paper I show that, using an LF-movement
style approach to the syntax-semantics interface, we
can derive all and only the appropriate meanings for
such constructions using no semantic operations
other than function application and composition. The
solution relies neither on a proliferation of
lexical ambiguity nor on abandoning the idea that
pronouns denote variables, but rather on a
straightforward (and standard) reification of
assignment functions, which allows us to define
abstraction operators within our models.}
}

@article{HeinzEtAl09,
author = {Jeffrey Heinz and Gregory M.~Kobele and Jason Riggle},
title = {Evaluating the Complexity of {O}ptimality {T}heory},
journal = {Linguistic Inquiry},
year = 2009,
volume = 40,
number = 2,
pages = {277-288},
doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/ling.2009.40.2.277},
pdf = {files/HeinzEtAl09.pdf},
abstract = {Idsardi (2006) claims that Optimality Theory (OT; Prince
and Smolensky 1993/2004) is in general
computationally intractable'' on the basis of a proof
adapted from Eisner (1997a). We take issue with this
conclusion on two grounds. First, the intractability
result holds only in cases where the constraint set
is not fixed in advance (contra usual definitions of
OT) and second, the result crucially depends on a
particular representation of OT grammars. We show
that there is an alternative representation of OT
grammars that allows for efficient computation of
optimal surface forms and provides deeper insight
into the sources of complexity of Optimality
Theory. We conclude that it is a mistake to reject
Optimality Theory on the grounds that it is
computationally intractable.}
}

@incollection{Kobele09Survive,
author = {Gregory M.~Kobele},
title = {Syntactic Identity in Survive Minimalism: Ellipsis and the Derivational Identity Hypothesis},
booktitle = {Towards a derivational syntax: Survive-minimalism},
publisher = {John Benjamins},
year = {2009},
editor = {Michael T.~Putnam},
http = {http://benjamins.com/#catalog/books/la.144/},
pdf = {files/Kobele09Survive.pdf},
abstract = {Over the years, a number of counter-examples to the
hypothesis that ellipsis resolution is mediated via
syntactic identity have been identified. However, in
the same time evidence which seems to require
comparison of syntactic structures in ellipsis
resolution has also been unearthed. On top of this
empirical puzzle, survive minimalism places an
structures, once assembled, are opaque to further
search or manipulation. In this paper, I show that a
simple perspective shift allows us both to view the
purported counter-examples as providing glimpses
into the nature of the operations which build
syntactic structure, and to satisfy the theoretical
constraints imposed by survive minimalism's
derivational take on syntactic structure.}
}

@inproceedings{Kobele08TAG,
author = {Gregory M.~Kobele},
title = {Across-the-Board Extraction in Minimalist Grammars},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the Ninth International Workshop on Tree Adjoining Grammar and Related Formalisms (TAG+9)},
pages = {113--128},
year = 2008,
pdf = {files/Kobele08TAG.pdf},
abstract = {Minimalist grammars cannot provide adequate descriptions
of constructions in which a single filler saturates
two mutually independent gaps, as is commonly
analyzed to be the case in parasitic gap
constructions and other across-the-board extraction
phenomena. In this paper, I show how a simple
addition to the minimalist grammar formalism allows
for a unified treatment of control and parasitic gap
phenomena, and can be restricted in such a way as to
account for across-the-board exceptions to the
coordinate structure constraint.  In the context of
standard constraints on movement, the weak
generative capacity of the formalism remains
unaffected.}
}

@incollection{Kobele08a,
author = {Gregory M.~Kobele},
title = {Agreement Bottlenecks in {I}talian},
booktitle = {Computational Algebraic Approaches to Natural Language},
editor = {Claudia Casadio and Joachim Lambek},
publisher = {Polimetrica},
year = 2008,
pages = {191--212},
pdf = {files/Kobele08AgreementBottlenecks.pdf},
abstract = {This paper follows a progression of pregroup analyses of
agreement in the Italian DP as they are successively
modified so as to express more sophisticated
relationships between overt expressions of
agreement. The desire to state our intuitions about
the data directly in the object language of the
theory will be seen to put pressures on the
underlying combinatory system that the types will be
unable to accommodate.  Allowing more expressive
types (while holding constant the underlying
calculus) will alleviate some of the pressure put on
the combinatory system, and allow us to capture
paradigms that are out of the reach of previous
analyses. In particular, it will be shown that
[Bobaljik, 2002] are statable without additional
stipulation in our setting.}
}

@inproceedings{KobeleEtAl07,
author = {Gregory M. Kobele and Christian Retor\'e and Sylvain Salvati},
title = {An automata theoretic approach to minimalism},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the Workshop Model-Theoretic Syntax at 10; ESSLLI '07},
editor = {James Rogers and Stephan Kepser},
chapter = 9,
year = 2007,
http = {http://cs.earlham.edu/esslli07mts},
pdf = {files/KobeleEtAl07.pdf},
abstract = {We show in this paper how, given a minimalist grammar $G$,
to construct a simple, regular, characterization of
its well formed derivations. We obtain both a
bottom-up and a top-down characterization of the
function from minimalist derivations to derived
trees. The same construction extends to minimalist
grammars with copying. In other words, the structure
languages generated by minimalist grammars with
(without) copying are contained in the output
languages of (finite copying) tree homomorphisms.
Compositionality is naturally formulated as a
transduction mapping derivation trees to (terms
denoting) semantic values. The compositional
semantics for minimalist grammars introduced in
Kobele (2006) is naturally expressed in terms of a
transduction of the same type as that mapping
derivations to derived trees. We present a general
method of synchronizing (in the sense of Shieber
(1994)) multiple transductions over the same
derivation, showing as a result that the
form-meaning relations definable by MGs interpreted
as per Kobele (2006) can be described as bimorphisms
of type $B(M,M)$.}
}

@incollection{KobeleTorrence06,
author = {Gregory Kobele and Harold Torrence},
title = {Intervention and focus in {A}sante {T}wi},
booktitle = {Papers on Information Structure in African Languages},
pages = {161--184},
publisher = {ZAS},
year = 2006,
editor = {Ines Fiedler and Anne Schwarz},
volume = {46(12)},
series = {ZAS Papers in Linguistics},
http = {http://www.zas.gwz-berlin.de/187.html},
pdf = {files/KobeleTorrence06.pdf},
abstract = {This paper concerns the distribution of wh-words in
Asante Twi, which has both a focus fronting strategy
and an in-situ strategy. We show that the focusing
and the in-situ constructions are not simply equally
available options. On the contrary, there are
several cases where the focusing strategy must be
used and the in-situ strategy is ungrammatical. We
show that the cases in Asante Twi are intervention
effects'', which are attested in other languages,
like German, Korean, and French. We identify a core
set of intervening elements that all of these
languages have and discuss their properties.}
}

@inproceedings{KobeleKracht06,
author = {Gregory M. Kobele and Marcus Kracht},
title = {Pregroup Grammars are Turing Complete},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 29th Pennsylvania Linguistics Colloquium},
year = 2006,
pages = {189--198},
editor = {Aviad Eilam and Tatjana Scheffler and Joshua Tauberer},
volume = 12,
number = 1,
series = {University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics},
http = {http://ling.upenn.edu/papers/v12.1-contents.html},
pdf = {files/KobeleKracht06.pdf},
abstract = {Pregroups were introduced in (Lambek, 1999), and provide
a foundation for a particularly simple syntactic
calculus. Buszkowski (2001) showed that free
pregroup grammars generate exactly the
$\epsilon$-free context-free languages.  Here we
characterize the class of languages generable by all
pregroups, which will be shown to be the entire
class of recursively enumerable languages. To show
this result, we rely on the well-known
representation of recursively enumerable languages
as the homomorphic image of the intersection of two
context-free languages (Ginsburg et al., 1967). We
define an operation of cross-product over grammars
(so-called because of its behaviour on the types),
and show that the cross-product of any two
free-pregroup grammars generates exactly the
intersection of their respective languages.  The
representation theorem applies once we show that
allowing empty categories' (i.e. lexical items
without overt phonological content) allows us to
mimic the effects of any string homomorphism.}
}

@phdthesis{Kobele06PhD,
author = {Gregory M.~Kobele},
title = {Generating Copies: An investigation into structural identity in language and grammar},
school = {University of California, Los Angeles},
year = 2006,
http = {diss.html},
pdf = {files/Kobele06GeneratingCopies.pdf}
}

@article{Kobele05FMM,
author = {Gregory M. Kobele},
title = {Features moving madly: A formal perspective on feature percolation in the minimalist program},
journal = {Research on Language and Computation},
year = 2005,
volume = 3,
number = 4,
pages = {391--410},
doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11168-006-6330-1},
pdf = {files/Kobele05FMM.pdf},
abstract = {I show that adding a mechanism of feature percolation
(via specifier head agreement) to Minimalist
Grammars (MGs) [Stabler, 1997] takes them out of the
class of context-sensitive grammar formalisms. The
main theorem of the paper is that adding a mechanism
of feature percolation to MGs allows them to
implement infinite abaci [Lambek, 1961], which can
simulate any Turing Machine computation. As a simple
corollary, I show that, for any computable function
$f$ over natural numbers, MGs thus enhanced can
generate the unary language corresponding to the
range of $f$.}
}

@inproceedings{KobeleMichaelis09,
author = {Gregory M. Kobele and Jens Micha\/elis},
title = {Two Type 0-Variants of Minimalist Grammars},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 10th conference on Formal Grammar and the 9th Meeting on Mathematics of Language},
year = 2009,
editor = {Gerhard J{\"a}ger and Paola Monachesi and Gerald Penn and James Rogers and Shuly Wintner},
publisher = {CSLI Online Publications},
http = {http://cslipublications.stanford.edu/FG/2005/index.html},
pdf = {files/KobeleMichaelis05.pdf},
abstract = {Minimalist grammars (Stabler 1997) capture some
essential ideas about the basic operations of
sentence construction in the Chomskyian syntactic
tradition. Their affinity with the unformalized
theories of working linguists makes it easier to
implement and thereby to better understand the
operations appealed to in neatly accounting for some
of the regularities perceived in language. Here we
characterize the expressive power of two, apparently
quite different, variations on the basic minimalist
grammar framework, gotten by either adding a
mechanism of feature percolation' (Kobele, 2005),
movement (the specifier island condition', Stabler
1999), using it to replace another one (the
shortest move condition', Stabler 1997, 1999)
(G\"artner and Michaelis, 2005).  We demonstrate that
both variants have equal, unbounded, computing power
by showing how each can simulate straightforwardly a
2-counter automaton.}
}

@incollection{LeeEtAl05,
author = {Yoosook Lee and Travis C.~Collier and Gregory M.~Kobele and Edward P.~Stabler and Charles E.~Taylor},
title = {Grammar Structure and the Dynamics of Language Evolution},
booktitle = {Advances in Artificial Life},
pages = {624--633},
publisher = {Springer},
year = 2005,
editor = {Mathieu S.~Capcarrere and Alex A.~Freitas and Peter J.~Bentley and Colin G.~Johnson and Jon Timmis},
volume = 3630,
series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
note = {Proceedings of the 8th European Conference, ECAL 2005},
doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/11553090},
pdf = {files/LeeEtAl05.pdf},
abstract = {The complexity, variation, and change of languages make
evident the importance of representation and
learning in the acquisition and evolution of
language. For example, analytic studies of simple
language in unstructured populations have shown
complex dynamics, depending on the fidelity of
language transmission. In this study we extend these
analysis of evolutionary dynamics to include
grammars inspired by the principles and parameters
paradigm. In particular, the space of languages is
structured so that some pairs of languages are more
similar than others, and mutations tend to change
languages to nearby variants.  We found that
coherence emerges with lower learning fidelity than
predicted by earlier work with an unstructured
language space.}
}

@inproceedings{KobeleEtAl04,
author = {Gregory M. Kobele and Jason Riggle and Richard Brooks and David Friedlander and Charles Taylor and Edward Stabler},
title = {Induction of Prototypes in a Robotic Setting Using Local Search {MDL}},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Artificial Life and Robotics},
pages = {482--485},
year = 2004,
editor = {Masanori Sugisaka and Hiroshi Tanaka},
pdf = {files/KobeleEtAl04.pdf},
abstract = {Categorizing objects sets the stage for more advanced
interactions with the environment. Minimum
Description Length learning provides a framework in
which to investigate processes by which concept
learning might take place. Importantly, the concepts
so acquired can be viewed as having a prototype
structure - the concepts may apply to one object
better than to another. We ground our discussion in
a real-world setting - objects to categorize are
sensor readings of the behaviours of two mobile
robots.}
}

@inproceedings{KobeleEtAl03,
author = {Gregory M.~Kobele and Jason Riggle and Travis C.~Collier and Yoosook Lee and Ying Lin and Yuan Yao and Charles E.~Taylor and Edward P.~Stabler},
title = {Grounding As Learning},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the Workshop/Course on Language Evolution and Computation, ESSLLI 03},
pages = {87--94},
editor = {Simon Kirby},
year = 2003,
http = {http://www.lel.ed.ac.uk/~simon/esslli.html},
pdf = {files/KobeleEtAl03.pdf},
abstract = {Communication among agents requires (among many other
things) that each agent be able to identify the
semantic values of the generators of the
language. This is the grounding'' problem: how do
agents with different cognitive and perceptual
experiences successfully converge on common (or at
least sufficiently similar) meanings for the
language? There are many linguistic studies of how
human learners do this, and also studies of how this
could be achieved in robotic contexts (e.g.,
(Steels, 1996; Kirby, 1999)). These studies provide
insight, but few of them characterize the problem
precisely. In what range of environments can which
range of languages be properly grounded by
distributed agents? This paper takes a first step
toward bringing the tools of formal language theory
to bear on this problem. In the first place, these
tools easily reveal a number of grounding problems
which are simply unsolvable with reasonable
assumptions about the evidence available, and some
problems that can be solved. In the second place,
these tools provide a framework for exploring more
sophisticated grounding strategies (Stabler et al.,
2003). We explore here some preliminary ideas about
how hypotheses about syntactic structure can
interact with hypotheses about grounding in a
fruitful way to provide a new perspective on the
emergence of recursion in language. Simpler
grounding methods look for some kind of correlation
between the mere occurrence of particular basic
generators and semantic elements, but richer
hypotheses about relations among the generators
constraints on the problem.}
}

@inproceedings{KobeleEtAl02,
author = {Gregory M.~Kobele and Travis C.~Collier and Charles E.~Taylor and Edward P.~Stabler},
title = {Learning Mirror Theory},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the Sixth International Workshop on Tree
Grammars and Related Frameworks (TAG+6)},
year = 2002,
pdf = {files/KobeleEtAl02.pdf},
abstract = {Here we investigate the learnability of classes of
mirror-theoretic grammars from dependency
structures, which show relations among the lexical
items in a sentence, information which is, at least
in many cases, plausibly available to the language
learner (surface order, morphological decomposition
and affixation and selection relations).  We define
conditions under which this is possible.  Adapting a
technique familiar from (Kanazawa, 1998) and others,
we show that if the lexical ambiguity in target
grammars is restricted, this can provide a basis for
generalization from the finite sample. Our results
show that the class of mirror theoretic grammars in
which every lexical item has a unique phonetic
string (the 1-rigid grammars) is identifiable in the
limit from any text of dependency structures.}
}

@incollection{StablerEtAl03,
author = {Edward P.~Stabler and Travis C.~Collier and Gregory M.~Kobele and Yoosook Lee and Ying Lin and Jason Riggle and Yuan Yao and Charles E.~Taylor},
title = {The Learning and Emergence of Mildly Context Sensitive Languages},
booktitle = {Advances in Artificial Life},
pages = {525--534},
publisher = {Springer},
year = 2003,
editor = {Wolfgang Banzhaf and Thomas Christaller and Peter Dittrich and Jan T.~Kim and Jens Ziegler},
volume = 2801,
series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/b12035},
pdf = {files/StablerEtAl03.pdf},
abstract = {This paper describes a framework for studies of the
adaptive acquisition and evolution of language, with
the following components: language learning begins
by associating words with cognitively salient
representations (grounding''); the sentences of each
language are determined by properties of lexical
items, and so only these need to be transmitted by
learning; the learnable languages allow multiple
agreements, multiple crossing agreements, and
reduplication, as mildly context sensitive and human
languages do; infinitely many different languages
are learnable; many of the learnable languages
include infinitely many sentences; in each language,
inferential processes can be defined over succinct
representations of the derivations themselves; the
languages can be extended by innovative responses to
communicative demands. Preliminary analytic results
and a robotic implementation are described.}
}

@article{Kobele02FMT,
author = {Gregory M. Kobele},
title = {Formalizing Mirror Theory},
journal = {Grammars},
year = 2002,
volume = 5,
number = 3,
pages = {177--221},
doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1022104104992},
pdf = {files/Kobele02FMT.pdf},
abstract = {Mirror theory is a theory of (morpho-) syntax introduced
in (Brody, 1997). Here I present a formalization of
the theory, and study some of its language theoretic
properties.}
}

@inproceedings{WeeEtAl01,
year = 2001,
author = {Kyubum Wee and Travis C.~Collier and Gregory M.~Kobele and Edward P.~Stabler and Charles E.~Taylor},
title = {Natural language interface to an intrusion detection system},
booktitle = {Proceedings, International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems},
organization = {ICCAS},
pdf = {files/WeeEtAl01.pdf},
abstract = {Computer security is a very important issue these
days. Computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, and
cracking are prevalent and causing serious
damages. There are also many ways developed to
defend against such attacks including cryptography
and firewalls. However, it is not possible to
guarantee complete security of computer systems or
networks. Recently much attention has been directed
to ways to detect intrusions and recover from
damages.  Although there have been a lot of research
efforts to develop efficient intrusion detection
systems, little has been done to facilitate the
interaction between intrusion detection systems and
users. Reports and presentations of current states
of the computers or networks to the user in a format
that is easy to understand as well as specification
of security policies from the user are important
aspects of intrusion detection systems. We present
our first steps to develop natural language
interface between a user and an intrusion detection
system using minimalist transformational grammar and
Prolog. Our system takes a pseudo-English query from
the user, parses it using CYK -like algorithm,
converts it into a formula in Horn logic, feeds it
to Prolog, and then gets the answer back in a simple
format.}
}


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