A 3D 4-bar linkage created using linkR.
Linkages, or closed loops of inter-jointed, rigid links, are commonly used
in engineering to transform an input motion or force into an output motion or force
along a particular path.
Several groups of animals have evolved musculoskeletal structures for feeding, breathing and defense that employ
structures analogous to linkages in engineering.
However, while human-made linkages are usually confined to a single two-dimensional plane,
biological linkages are often three-dimensional.
The linkR package for R provides a toolkit for
creating models of 2D and 3D linkages,
predicting motion, force and torque outputs
and calculating linkage mechanical properties such as motion, force
and torque transmission ratios.
linkR works with the R package
enabling users to create
3D interactive animations
of linkage models.